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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Danho on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 211.0 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Manabendra Dasgupta (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Principles of Macroeconomics in Economcs at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Subsistence Why is Food Important 0 How food is acquired shapes our lives 0 And how a society get 5 food in uences many other aspects of culture as well The Barrel Model of Culture 0 All aspects of a culture function as an integrated Whole 0 There are three main categories of a culture 1 Superstructure 2 Social Structure 3 Infrastructure Food Culture and Environment 0 Complex interaction between ecosystem resources and cultural food getting technologies 0 Ecosystem Functioning system that is comprised of both the natural environment m the organisms that inhabit it Getting Food Modes of Subsistence 1 Food Foraging 0 An extractive food getting technology that is designed to take from the nature s bounty as it is found 0 A fundamentally opportunistic strategy 2 Food Producing O A productive food getting technology that seeks to actively enhance and re ne natures bounty O A fundamentally energy intensive strategy Food Foragers 1 Hunting 2 Fishing 3 Gathering 0 Also called hunter gatherers or hunter harvestersquot Food Producers l Pastoralism 2 Horticulture 3 Agriculture Subsistence Mixed Subsistence Strategies 0 Many societies thought the world practice mixed strategy for acquiring food Getting Food Food Foraging 0 Oldest Subsistence Pattern Worldwide 0 Number of Modern Foragers 250000 0 00004 of Global Pop 0 Foraging Environments l Deserts 2 Tropical Forests 3 Arctic 0 Hunting O The dominant human subsistence activity for 99 of our history 0 A wide array of techniques and equipment gt stone tools metal tools spears knives bowarrow traps guns etc 0 Gendered Activity gt Male 0 Fishing 0 Until recently the importance of shing in foraging societies has been underestimated O A wide variety of shing techniques and equipment gt lines nets spears bowarrow and poison O Gendered Activity gt Male Gathering O Involves collection of Wild plants fruits berries nuts vegetables eggs insects honey small animals etc 0 Much more important in warmer climates than in colder climates O Gendered Activity gt Female Food Foraging and Social Organization 1 Group Size and Mobility 2 Division of Labor 3 Food Sharing and Property 4 Social Realtions Food Foraging Societies Group Size and Mobility Subsistence 0 Group Size 0 The size of food foraging groups 1 Small less than 100 members 2 Limited by the carrying capacity of the ecosystem O Mobility The mobility of food foragers 1 High yet available 2 Guided by the resources available Within the ecosystem O Carrying Capacity The number of people available resources can supports With a given food getting technique Food Foraging Societies Division of Labor 0 Division of Labor is present all societies 0 Among food foragers the division of labor is exible and based on gender 0 Common Male Activities Defense of communities hunter butcher build home 0 Common Female Activities Raising children food prep gathering Food Foraging Societies Food Sharing and Communal Property 0 Food Sharing 0 Both men and women commonly share the fruits of their labor 0 Food sharing provides the basis for creatingmaintaining social allies 0 Communal Property 0 Generally food foragers do not accumulate surplus 0 Food is shared throughout the group and no one person or family achieves and more wealth or status than another Egalitarian Social Relations 0 Egalitarianism O M signi cant status differences among members of a group Only status differences based on age and gender 0 Food foragers tend to be non aggressive and place more emphasis on peacefulness and cooperation than they do on violent competition Subsistence The Turkana 0 Location Kenya 0 Ecosystem Semi Arid Grassland 0 Population 900000 Who Are the Turkana 0 Subsistance Pastoralists 0 Clothing Indicates age gender status 0 Marriage PolygynyMonogamy 0 Family Extended FilmKenya The Year of the Clouds 1991 0 Topics to Watch For Types of subsistence milk blood meat from animals Food getting roles the men brothers Ecosystems How does food in uence life 0000 Patterns of Subsistence The rst food producers Age Subsistence Developments Upper Paleolithic Hunting of herd animals 40 000 10000 years ago Neolithic Recolution Planting of food crops keeping and breeding 10000 4000 years ago animals Settled Village life Earliest Evidence of Food Production Area of the World Years Ago Middle EastNear East 10000 East Asia 9 000 Mesoamerica 9000 Eastern North America 4000 Subsistence Food Producers Horticulture Horticulture 0 The cultivation of crops in small gardens using simple hand tools 0 Mixed subsistence common 0 Slash and Burn aka SWidden 0 Gendered Activity gt Predominately female but exible Slash and Burn Horticulture aka SWidden Farming 0 A form of horticulture in Which the vegetation is cut the slash is burned and crops are then planted among the ashes General Characteristics of Horticulture Societies Group Size gt Low to moderate low 1005 Mobility gt Sedentary W some movement Food Shortage gt Infrequent Tarde gt Minimal to moderate Individual Wealth Differences gt Generally Minimal Political Leadership gt Part time political of cials Pastoralism 0 The breeding and managing of large herds of domesticated grazing animals 0 Focus on a dominant species 0 Horse cattle goat sheep camel yak reindeer and llamaalpaca 0 Provides meat milk fur hide and even blood 0 Gendered Activity gt Predominantly Male 0 There are tWo general types of pastoralism l Nomadic Pastoralism A migratory pattern that varies from year to year involving the Whole community movement 2 Transhumance Pastoralism A cyclical pattern of migrations that usually shift seasonally M move With the herds While others remain home Generalist Characteristics of Pastoralist Societies Population Density gt Low Mobility gt Semi nomadic or nomadic Food Shortages gt Semi Frequent Subsistence Trade gt Can be important Individual Wealth Differences gt Moderate Political Leadership gt Part and full time political of cials Agriculture 0 Cultivation of food plants in soil prepared and maintained for crop production 0 Focuses on a limited number of crops 0 Grains and Tubers 0 Uses technologies other than hand tools including 0 Irrigation O Fertilizers O Plow and Draft Animals 0 Terracing Intensive A griculture An intensi cation of agriculture resulting in O Large scale food production Mono cropping Development of towns and cities CompleX division of labor including elite groups public management and taxation Concept of ownership Emergence of economic classes General Characteristics of Agricultural Societies Population Density gt High 1000s Community Size gt Large towns and cities Mobility gt Permanent communities Food Shortages gt Frequent Trade gt Very important Individual Wealth Differences gt Considerable including formation of social classes Political Leadership gt Many full time political and administrative of cials Subsistence
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