Unit 2 - Cell Biology Lecture
Unit 2 - Cell Biology Lecture 40763 - BMS 110 - B
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by tess2019 on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 40763 - BMS 110 - B at Missouri State University taught by Ivy J Fitzgerald in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Biomedical Sciences in Biomedical Sciences at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Cell Biology Monday August 17 2015 1228 PM Cell Theory All cells arise form the growth and division of previous cells 0 All cells come from other cells 1 Every organism is composed of 1 cells 2 The cell is the smallest units having the properties of life 3 All cells come from preexisting cells How are cells alike 0 Outer plasma membrane composed of phospholipid bilayer Contain DNA 0 Contain cytosol Properties of Life Requirement of energy 0 Production of waste 0 Growth Reproduction Death Cells are SMALL Cells are small to have a large surfacetovolume ratio 0 A large surfacetovolu me ratio helps because 0 To get nutrients in and out of the cell things have to pass through the cell membrane cell surface 0 The cell uses up resources throughout the cell cell volume 0 To effectively feed a whole cell by passing nutrients through its surface the volume needs to stay small 0 Surface area x2 0 Volumezx3 0 Volume increases much faster than surface area does Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes Prokaryote quotbeforequot quotnucleusquot no nucleus 0 No nucleus no organelles 0 Bacteria Have cell walls Eukaryotes quottruequot quotnucleusquot nucleus 0 Nucleus organelles Animals 0 Plants Eukaryotes Animals and Cells 0 Plants have cell membrane and cell wall 0 Cell wall makes them rigid Plants have chloroplasts to make food 0 Animals only have cell membranes and no chloroplasts Eukaryotic Cells Organelles An organelle is a membranebound subcellular component in the cytosol that does a job Organelles include 0 ER rough and smooth 0 Golgi apparatus Mitochondria 0 Lysosomes 0 Peroxisomes Plasma Membrane 0 Plasma membranecell membrane Lipid bilayer Separates the inside ofthe cell from the outside Semipermeable o Impermeable charged molecules large polar molecules 0 Permeable small polar molecules and hydrophobic molecules Intracellular Fluid Cytosol liquid inside the cell Intracellular fluid 0 Contains a high concentration of proteins so it is thick gellike consistency Cytoplasmcytosol organelles everything inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus 0 Cytoplasmic matrix Nucleus Where DNA is stored Chromosomes are found in the nucleus 0 DNA is stored as chromatin the DNA helix is wrapped around proteins 0 DNA is wrapped around protein complexes called histones o Histones are packed together and packed together and packed together again very very condensed Chromosomes When you can see the chromosomes under a microscope the DNA has been packed with proteins Chromatin The packaging of DNA into chromatin Reduces the size ofthe DNA so it fits in the nucleus Strengthens the DNA Prevents DNA damage Controls gene expression 0 Packed DNA can39t go through transcription or replication to make more DNA or proteins Nucleolus Nucleolus a distinct region of the nucleus rRNA is transcribed here as well as processed and assembled into ribosomal subunhs Nuclear Envelope Nuclear envelope the membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytosol Double lipid bilayer Nuclearpore hole in nuclear envelope Secretory Pathways Proteins that need to leave the cell are made assembled and shipped through the secretory pathway Composed of o Endoplasmic reticulum ER 0 Golgi apparatus 0 Vesicles Endoplasmic Reticulum ER Network offlattened membraneenclosed sacs or tubes Importantfor protein maturation and lipid synthesis 0 Packages proteins and lipids to go to the Golgi Rough ER docked ribosomes on surface oforganelle makes it look quotroughquot o Docked ribosomes push new protein from outside of ER into ER 0 These proteins will be 39 Secreted 39 mbedded in the membrane ofa secretory pathway organelle 39 Inside in the lumen a secretory pathway organelle 0 Proteins fold in lumen 0 Proteins are glycosylated sugars are added o Disulfide bonds are formed in proteins only inside ER Where are proteins made Ribosomes are in the cytosol Can be freefloating 0 Make proteins that work in the cytosol Can dockinto ER 0 Make proteins that work in organelles 0 Make proteins that work outside the cell are secreted mBNA Iribosome regsffquot protein chain 3 r I f 7 F 39 f f signal Peplide m U membrane 72 a Channel signal peptide ANquot 111 endoplasmio J FQHM r ZZ39J mature protein reticulum membrane Smooth ER no ribosomes present so surface is smooth 0 Where lipids are synthesized Vesicles Proteins and lipids leave ER and go to Golgi in vesicles 0 Vesicles small membranebound spheres that transport cargo Golgi Apparatus Golgi apparatus series of flattened sacs singular cisterna plural cisternae 0 Trims proteins cuts off unnecessary amino acids 0 Glycosylates proteins 0 Packages proteins and lipids and sends them to their final destinations such as the cell membrane Disposal And Recycling Lysosome contains digestive enzymes breaks down old mitochondria and other cellular debns 0 Membraneenclosed 0 Contains hyd rolytic enzymes for hydrolysis to break things down 0 Only work at low pH 39 Prevents from digesting parts of cell pH 7 0 Intracellular digestion of macromolecules 0 Acidic pH about50 Peroxisome detoxifies cell uses hydrogen peroxide H202 to do oxidative reactions such as breaking down fats Membraneenclosed Contain enzymes to break down toxins Hydrogen peroxide produced and destroyed Use hydrogen peroxide to destroy toxins eg alcohol Breaks down fatty acids to use for energy production Mitochondria quotMitochondria are the powerhouse of the cellquot 0 Make ATP Evolved from bacteria that got ingested but not digested Double membrane 0 Inner and outer membrane 0 lntermembrane spacespace btinner membrane and outer membrane 0 Cristaefolds in inner membrane 39 Folds increase surface area of membrane making more room for ATP synthesis 0 Matrix space inside inner membrane Offspring inherit mitochondria from mother39s egg Mitochondriaselfreplicating o 1 mitochondrion will break in half to make 2 Mitochondria contain their own genome 0 Circular 0 Encodes 13 proteins 22 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs o 99 of mitochondrial proteins encoded in nuclear DNA 0 Production of ATP 0 Use proton H gradient to make ATP 0 Mitochondria pump protons into the intermembrane space high concentration 39 High concentration of protons in intermembrane space low concentration in matrix 39 Diffusion of protons is what we use to make ATP I Electron transport chainWOOOO o The mitochondrion uses the electrochemical energy ofthe hydrogen ion moving down its gradient to make ATP 7 o ATPaseenzyme that makes ATP found in inner membrane Cytoskeleton Microtubules tubulin Composed of dimers two monomers of tubulin held together to make polymer of microtubule Scaffoldtrack forvesicle and organelle motion 0 Importantforintracellular trafficking of cellular components including organelles o Centrioles composed oftubulin 39 In a pair at right angles 39 Importantfororganization of mitotic spindles during cell division 0 Core of cilia and flagella o Microtubules give cilia and flagella their structure strength and motion o 9 pairs of microtubules in a ring a central pair of microtubules Move chromosomes during cell division 0 Line chromosomes up during metaphase Intermediate fibers Tensile strength Gives strength to cell Allows bending without breaking Microfilaments actin Muscle contraction Cell surface shape wholecell locomotion Actin monomers assemble into actin filaments microfilaments Cell Movement Cilia hairlike usually cell contains lots ofthem Cilia line the airways 0 Beat to move particulate matter mucus dust etc out of airways Flagella bigger stronger and usually only one or a few 0 only one example of flagella in human biology Flagellum on a sperm propels itself through female reproductive tract
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