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Chapter 7 Notes

by: Brent Hawn

Chapter 7 Notes PSY 12000 - 042

Brent Hawn
Elementary Psychology
Erin Sparks Ward

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About this Document

Complete notes and answers from Instructor Erin Sparks Ward.
Elementary Psychology
Erin Sparks Ward
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brent Hawn on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 12000 - 042 at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 10/08/15
Chapter 7 1 What is the de nition of learning lecturebook Be able to identify from examples what is learning and what is not learning 0 Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior that results form experience i Focus on observable behavior ii Behavior change must be something that happens as a result of practice so we can act more sensibly in future 2 What is meant by orienting habituation and sensitization lecturebook Understand how these concepts are all related to the process of how people notice a stimulus in the environment and learn to ignore it How are habituation and sensitization both adaptive Orienting An inborn tendency to notice and respond to novel events Habituation Decline in tendency to respond to event that has become familiar D Notice and ignore Sensitization Increased response to an event that has been repeated D Annoyance can39t take it anymore 3 Understand that classical conditioning refers to a process by which people notice a stimulus in the environment and learn WHAT IT SIGNALS OR PREDICTS or a process by which people learn relationships between events that occur outside of their control lecturebook Be able to identify examples of classical conditioning Classical conditioning Learning that one event predicts another 4 Be able to describe Pavlov39s dog studies Understand how they are an example of classical conditioning lecturebook The dog didn39t have to learn anything to respond Ringing the bell causes the dog to salivate because the dog is used to eating when the bell is rand which causes it to salivate 5 In classical conditioning know the shorthand for US UR CS and CR and be able to identify the various stimuli in an example ie Unconditioned Stimulus US Unconditioned Response UR conditioned stimulusCS conditioned responseCR Etc lecturebook Unconditioned Stimulus US Stimulus that can elicit an unlearned response an instinctual stimulus Unconditioned Response UR An unlearned reaction to the unconditioned stimulus an instinctual or inborn reaction Conditioned Stimulus CS stimulus that elicits a response as a result of being paired with a conditioned stimulus a learned stimulus Conditioned Response CR response that is similar or identical to the unconditioned response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus a learned response 6 In classical conditioning the conditioned stimulus should function as that the unconditioned stimulus is about to occur lecturebook 0 New information 7 Know the 4 things necessary to form the CSUS connection in classical conditioning lecturebook Know what is meant by simultaneous conditioning backward conditioning and blocking and understand how these terms relate to what is necessary to form the CSUS connection lecturebook The CS must provide useful information about the arrival of the US 0 CS usually needs to come before the US simultaneously conditioning and backward conditioning usually don39t work 0 US needs to follow CS closely in time 0 CS must provide new information about the US blocking occurs when something prevents somebody form learning that a CS is paired with a US by ensuring that the CS contains no new information 8 Understand how the Little Albert experiment worked and know what the experiment demonstrated lecturebook Know what the US UR CS and CR were in this experiment Paired a white rat with a frightening noise until the baby was conditioned to be afraid of the white rat on site i US Loud noise ii UR Fear iii CS White rat iv CR Fear 9 Why does classical conditioning work What was the early theory and what is the current cognitive view lecturebook Early Theory We simply 39shift39 UR over to the CS 0 Cognitive view We learn relationships between events and we learn that some events signal the upcoming occurrence of others and we respond appropriately 10Know what Secondorder Conditioning is and be able to identify an example lecturebook Secondorder conditioning A conditioned stimulus is used to condition a second neutral stimulus i For little quotalbertquot after conditioning him to afraid of the rat we might pair the rat instead of a loud noise with a banana to make him afraid of the banana ii Advertising Celebrity endorsement We learn that Michael Jordan is associated with basketball which is fun Pairing a car with Michael Jordan who is paired with basketball leads us to associate the car with fun as well 11Be familiar with stimulus Generalization and stimulus discrimination and know how they apply to classical conditioning lecturebook Stimulus Generalization Responding to a new stimulus in a manner similar to the response produced by an established conditioned stimulus Stimulus Discrimination Responding differently to a new stimulus than how one responds to an established conditioned stimulus 12What is Extinction as it relates to classical conditioning lecturebook Extinction The process of unlearning a learned response because the original source of learning has been removed from the environment i Extinction occurs when a CS is no longer paired with a US 13What is conditioned inhibition booklecture Conditioned lnhibition You learn that an event signals absence of an unconditioned stimulus i Dogs are trained to droop in response to a bell because every time you ring a bell you then bring food Sometimes you ring the bell also turn a lamp on When you do that you DON T bring food They now only drool when the bell rings without the light They stop drooling when the bell rings and the light also turns on 14Know the meaning of Spontaneous Recovery book Spontaneous Recovery 15What is counter conditioning just lecture Counter Conditioning The process of reversing classical condition by pairing the conditioned stimulus CS with a new positive unconditioned stimulus US to produce a positive instead of negative a conditioned response CR 16Know what is meant by operant conditioning and the law of effect lecturebook Operant Conditioning Learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability of the behaviors occurrence E Learning that our own actions lead to certain outcomes 0 Law of Effect If a response in a particular situation is followed by a satisfying consequence it will be strengthened If a response in a particular situation is followed by an unsatisfying consequence it will be weakened 17Make sure you know how operant conditioning is DIFFERENT from classical conditioning le think about learning what an event PREDICTS versus learning about the consequences of our OWN BEHAVIOR lecturebook In classical conditioning you learn that the occurrence of some event an event that you do not control predicts a certain outcome Le a bell ringing means food will arrive ln operant conditioning you learn that if you OPERATE on your own environment in certain ways M own behavior will produce certain outcomes so you change your behavior accordingly 18Understand how BF Skinner used operant conditioning to train pigeons lecturebook If the pigeon does what is supposed to be done then they will be rewarded 19Within operant conditioning know what is meant by the stimulus situation the discriminative stimulus stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination lecturebook 20 Stimulus Situation People learn that certain behaviors are rewarded In certain situations Discriminative Stimulus sets the occasion for a response to be rewarded Stimulus Generalization doing the behavior in a similar situation expecting a reward Stimulus Discrimination learning that in different scenarios the same behavior does not produce a reward Within operant conditioning be able to de ne punishment and reinforcement In addition know the difference between positive vs negative punishment and positive vs negative reinforcement Be able to identify from an example which of these 4 things is going on lecturebook Reinforcement response consequences that increase the likelihood of responding in a similar way Punishment response consequences that decrease the likelihood of responding in a similar way again Positive An event is presented or added after a behavioral response to either punish or reinforce Negative An event is removed or taken away after a behavioral response to either punish or reinforce Positive Reinforcement An event is presented after a response increasing the likelihood of that response Negative Reinforcement An event is removed after a response increasing the likelihood of that response Positive Punishment An event is presented after a response lowering the likelihood of that of that response Negative Punishment An event is removed after a response lowering the likelihood of that response 21What is a primary reinforcer lecturebook Primary Reinforcer Things that are innately reinforcing food warmth sexual grati cation 22What is a conditioned reinforcer lecturebook Conditioned Reinforcer Reinforcers that are learned money prizes grades applause 23What are some cautions to consider when using punishment lecturebook Do NOT rely heavily on physical punishment research shows it creates worse behavior in children Be careful about yelling as a form of punishment sometimes it is actually a reinforcer because it gives a kid desired attention Make sure to use reinforcement to instill the appropriate behavior that will take the place of the inappropriate behavior punishment just teaches what not to do Not what someone should do instead Punish behaviors and not the person stop punishment when the behavior stops 24Within operant conditioning what is a continuous reinforcement and partial reinforcement schedule lecturebook Continuous reinforcement the reinforcer is given every time Not always practically possible 0 Partial reinforcement Reinforcement delivered only some of the time 25Know the 4 different partial reinforcement schedules of operant conditioning be able to identify examples of each and know how well each one tends to work and why What is meant by a post reinforcement pause and how does this relate to a xed ratio schedule lecturebook Fixed Ratio Schedule the renforcer is given only after a speci ed number of responses Example a seamstress gets a paycheck each time she makes 6 dresses Effectiver produces steady work but often also produces a postreinforcement pause after getting paid for the 6th dress I know I have 6 more to go before getting paid again so I will pause for a break before getting started on the next 6 0 Variable Ratio the reinforcer is given after a varying number of responses Example reinforcement might be delivered after 1St dress then next time after 3rCI dress then next time after 6th dress More effective because you don39t know when reward is coming less pausing the very next response might always result in another reward Extinction is more dif cult Gambling 0 Fixed Interval Schedule the reinforcer is given after a xed amount of time instead of a xed amount of responses Example every 5 minutes a person arrives to give treats to any dog that is doing tricks Not very effective because people just start to increase their responding as the quotreward momentquot approaches why bother doing tricks rapidly during minutes 1 through 4 0 Variable Interval Schedule the reinforcer is given after a variable amount of time Example someone arrives to give treats to any dog that is doing tricks on average every 5 minutes but at unpredictable intervals sometimes after 30 seconds sometimes after 7 minutes etc More effective because people respond more consistently don39t know when reward is coming 26What is meant by shaping How did Skinner use shaping to train pigeons lecturebook Shaping rewarding a series of approximate behaviors until you get the behavior you want 27Understand some of the biological constraints on learning book 28What is meant by observational learning lecturebook Observational learning Learning by observing the experience of others 29What is meant by modeling lecturebook Natural tendency to imitate others 30What were Bandura39s Bobo do studies and what did they demonstrate lecturebook Bandura stressed that people learn by watching others long before there is any chance for the behavior to occur and be reinforced 31What is meant by vicarious reinforcement and punishment lecturebook Vicarious ReinforcementPunishment Responses acquired through observational learning are particularly strengthened


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