Sexual Orientation Psych 2070
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alma G on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2070 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Swartout in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Sexual Orientation Lecture Notes Additional Notes 0 Sexual Orientation 0 Can be difficult to measure Behavior o Is it only if you perform behavior to be gay Fantasy o Is it about the people you think about Romantic feelings Who you have feelings with Selfconceptself identi cation Is it on how you look at yourself 0 Sexual experimentation and sexual orientation are two different things Does not trump you to be gay if you experienced in college Does not mark your sexual orientation with single behavior or fantasies 0 Sexual orientation the genders that a person is attracted to emotionally sexually physically and romantically Society has a very of binary Heterosexual predominately attracted to members of the opposite sex Homosexual predominately attracted to members of the same sex Bisexual attracted to both men and women 0 Belief that does not exist because indecisive on who you like 0 Not accepted in heterosexual or homosexual community Women are more uid men tend to categorize themselves based on gender expectations 0 girls passing gender norms tomboy boys passing gender norms sissy gay 0 Models of Sexual Orientation o Kinsey Continuum 7point scale from exclusively heterosexual behavior to exclusively homosexual behavior Range between heterosexual and homosexual with shifting boundaries First scale to suggest sexual orientation is a continuous variable 0 Traditional belief was that sexual orientation was binary It emphasizes behavior problem excluding those who don39t engage in behavior but have fantasies It is static in time does not take to account other time periods of life 0 Where were you on the scale at 15 30 60 o Klein Sexual Orientation Grid KSOG expanded Kinsey s continuum 7 dimensions attraction behavior fantasy emotional preference social preference selfidenti cation lifestyle Takes to account a broader picture of sexual orientation 0 Not static in time including other stages in life 0 Each dimensions is measured for past present and ideal Sexual Orientation Prevalence o Kinsey s Statistics 1948criticism that he wanted to normalize homosexuality 37 men 13 women had at least one adult homosexual experience 4 men 3 women live as lifelong homosexuals o Laumann et al Statistics 1994trying to follow Kinsey method 4 of women had sex with woman as an adult lt2 in past year 5 of men had sex with man as an adult 2 in past year 0 How many are gaystraightbi Most people say heterosexual o How do you selfidentify Most people say heterosexual Where does sexual orientation come from 0 Biological theories 0 Developmental theories 0 Behaviorist theories 0 Sociological theories 0 lnteractional theories 0 Biological Theories 0 Differences are innate already born to have a different sexual orientation Q Genetics ls being gay heritable Mixed ndings not only one gene makes you gay Moderately heritable for meness for women Tests on twins where if one was homosexual the other might also be homosexual Gender nonconformity may be more heritable If there is a preference for one twin it is likely for the other one Genes account for some but not all variance in sexual orientation 0 Prenatal hormone exposure weak evidence Organizational effects during development hormones tells body what to do with gender neutral systems o If there is an absence of hormones body changes Congenital Adrenal HyperplasiaCAH disorder of sexual development high levels of androgen exposure prenatal 1 in 15000 babies masculinizes female genitalia CAH girls play with maletypical toys and higher rates of homosexuality than nonCAH girls 0 Birth orderweak evidence Gay men tend to have more older brothers than heterosexual men Maternal immunity hypothesis more antimale antibodies with each male birth Develops antibodies against fetus and as she has more male births it will feminize fetus to be accepted in the womb o 33 increase with each older brother 14 brothers for 99 chance homosexuality 0 Older sistersgt decrease chance What about lesbian women No evidence for lesbian chances 0 Developmental Theories 0 Sexual orientation differences are result of environment of upbringing GenderRole Nonconformity as a group children who display cross gender traits are more likely to be homosexual as adults 0 Play with atypical toys BUT many homosexuals were not effeminate as children 0 Did not play with atypical toys 0 AND not all effeminate boystomboys are homosexual as aduhs 0 Playing with atypical toys did not make you gay 0 Behaviorist Theory 0 Homosexuality a learned behavior 0 Behavior results from reward or positive reinforcement of homosexual behavior and punishment or negative reinforcement of heterosexual behavior 0 Conversion therapyreparative therapy punishment when they get aroused from samesex Goal to control behavior knowing cannot change behaviors o If have bad experience with heterosexual relationship ill lean toward positive same sex relationships Sociological Theories 0 Totally different from behaviorist theory 0 Social forces are responsible for sexual orientation 0 Sexual orientation labels are a product of our society Kids internalize labels learning their genders and who they should like Example Gender nonconforming boys are labeled as homosexual children and adopt the role 0 They ll the role because they were told that that was who they were lnteractional Theory 0 Sexual orientation is not based on one thing 0 Biologygenes hormones neuroanatomy contribute to childhood temperaments innate that in uence preferences for sexual typical and atypical behaviors and how people respond to behaviors Homosexuality throughout US History 0 Stonewall riots1969 gay club when homosexuals resisted police brutality 0 Removed from DSM1973 not considered aniHness 0 Harvey Milk1977 rst openly gay person elected into office for gay activism 0 AIDS epidemic 19805 0 DOMA struck down2011 0 Gay marriage legalized across country 2015 0 Beyond gay marriage Discrimination in housing employment education credit etc 0 Countries where gay marriage is legal 0 Many countries have it legalized 0 Others have some protection 0 High degree of punishment in Africa quotcorrective rapequot Coming Out 0 Awareness of sexual orientation begins pre puberty At a very young age 0 Coming out is a lifelong process Frightening not knowing how new people will react 50 report negative experiences 0 From family friends etc 26 kicked out of home Believed it is better to come out when in a safe environment o Rejection increased risk for suicideX8 depression drugs unsafe sex Risks for STDs Great problem in LGBT community 0 Positive experience higher self con dence lower rate if depression and better psychological adjustment overall Have a better life than LGBT youths with negative experiences 0 Gay Parenting 0 Laws depend on state on who can be an adopting parent 0 All scienti c evidence suggest that children who grow up with one or two gay or lesbian parents are as emotionally cognitively socially and sexually healthy as children of heterosexual parents No chance that having gay parents will make the child gay also 0 Children of gay parents are similar to those raised by heterosexual parents 0 BUT DIFFERENT IN Less homophobic Accept greater diversity More empathetic Homophobia and Heterosexism o Homophobia strongly negative attitudes towards homosexuals and homosexuality Likely to be older less educated religious conservative authoritarian less supportive of equality of sexes less sexually permissive heterosexual men Homosexuals with homophobia lower selfesteem more shame psychological distress because do not like who they are 0 Heterosexism a presumption of heterosexuality in society Not noticed that messages put out imply that you are heterosexual Passive lack of awareness not necessarily active discrimination How to combat homophobia and heterosexism 0 Media LGB media representation is increasing Becoming more normal to see in society 0 Education much opposition to teach sexuality including homosexuality in schools Teaching variety of sexualities gives less reason to oppress other people 0 Legislating against hate crimes targets violence committed in response to a victim s identity including sexual orientation Stop hurting homosexuals College campuses required to report all hate crimes 0 Personal interaction the Contact Hypothesis Interpersonal interactions is most effective way to reduce prejudice when working towards a goal in positive environment Minority Homosexuality caught between rock and a hard place 0 Many ethnics don t accept homosexuality o Racial minority gays and lesbians face both heterosexism in racial groups and racism in gay and nongay communities