PSY 205: Chapter 6 Week 1 Notes
PSY 205: Chapter 6 Week 1 Notes PSY 205 - M001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Notetaker on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 205 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by T. Palfai in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 234 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Human Behavior in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Thursday October 8 2015 PSY 205 Chapter 6 Lecture 1 Learning Learning Any durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience One of the most fundamental concepts in all psychology Learning shapes personal habits personality traits personal preferences emotional responses Classical conditioning lvan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning thorough his research with dogs Classical conditioning explains how neutral stimulus can acquire the capacity to elicit a response originally elicited by another stimulus the tone of the food machine started out as a neutral stimulus originally did not produce saliva The tone became a learned associate because the food always followed the tone Classical conditioning Learning where a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response originally evoked by a different stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus UCS evokes response with no previous conditioning Conditioned Stimulus CS Originally a neutral stimulus but through conditioning has acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response Unconditioned Response UCFlAn unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning Conditioned Response CR39A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning Classical conditioning in everyday life Thursday October 8 2015 Phobias Many irrational fears can be traced back to experiences that involve classical conditioning Basic processes in classical conditioning Acquisition the initial stage in learning something Extinction the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency continually presenting the CS without the U08 resulting in the gradual disappearance of the CR Spontaneous recovery the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus The depended variable is the strength of the conditioned response Stimulus Generalization and Little Albert Little Albert Presented a loud frightening noise in the presence of a white rat Then became scared of white rabbits white fur coats and anything else appearing white and fluffy UCS Loud noie CS White rat UCR Fear of loud noises CR Fear of white rat because of association with the loud noise Stimulus Generalization Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus VVhy Generalization is adaptive given that organisms rarer encounter the same stimulus more than once Thursday October 8 2015 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning A form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences BF Skinner Demonstrated that organisms tend to repeat responses that are followed by a favorable consequence Beyond Freedom and Dignity book that says there is no such thing as free will or human dignity Operant Conditioning Terminology and Procedures Operant chamber Skinner Box Small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled Rats pressing a small lever Pigeons pecking a small disk Reinforcement contingencies the circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers Typically a positive consequence when an animal makes the designated response Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning Operant responses are usually established through a gradual process of shaping Shaping consists of repeatedly reinforcing closer and closer approximations of a desired response until the desired response is achieved Shaping is necessary when an organism does not emit the desired response on its own ln operant conditioning extinction refers to the gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency because the response is no longer followed by reinforcers Thursday October 8 2015 Extinction occurs in operant conditioning whenever previously available reinforcement is stopped Resistance to extinction occurs when an organism continues to make a response after the delivery of a reinforcer has been terminated Resistance to extinction depends on the schooled or reinforcement used during acquisition Discriminative stimuli Cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probable consequences of a response Schedule of Reinforcement Determines which occurrences of a specific response result in the presentation of reinforcement Continuous reinforcement Occurs when every instance of a designed response is reinforced Intermittent reinforcement Occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time Ratio schedules Fixed Ratio the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses Example get 1 bonus point for every 5 correct answers Variable Ratio the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses Most resistance to extinction Example Slot machine Interval schedules Fixed Interval the reinforcer is given for that first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed Scalloping effect Variable interval steady rate of responding Consequences Reinforcement and Punishment Increasing a response Thursday October 8 2015 Positive reinforcement occurs when a response is strengthened because if is followed by a presentation of a rewarding stimulus Any event that increases the rate of responding positive Negative reinforcement occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus Preventing the event from happening negative Escape IearningAn organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimuli Avoidance learning An organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring Decreasing a response Punishment occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response Individual differences Behavior modification Reinforcing behaviors causing to repeat The case of Susie 4 years old Couldn39t stop coughing tried everything to stop offered her 5 cents to stop coughing for a short period of time and she did it Then offered more for more time and kept going up and she kept doing it until there was no more coughing at all The case of Lisa 3 years old She would always go on her hands and knees in school and it made the teacher mad the students were reinforcing her by giving her attention because they would look at her and laugh At home there was a newborn baby therefore she didn39t get all the attention and she would do it at home too Every behavior by this approach is maintained by reinforcement
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