Chapter 9 and 10 notes
Chapter 9 and 10 notes BSC 2010
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Cooper Mendes de Oliveira on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2010 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Steven Marks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Biological Science in Biological Sciences at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Thursday October 8 2015 BSC 2010 Chapter 10 Photosynthesis 39 Overview 39 Photosynthesis the process that converts solar energy into chemical energy 39 photosynthesis in uences almost the entire world either indirectly or directly 39 reactions involved in photosynthesis are the opposite of those involved in cellular respiration 39 Autotrophs sustain themselves without consuming anything that comes from other organisms 39 the producers 39 create C02 and other inorganic molecules 39 Heterotrophs obtain organic material from other organisms 39 the consumers 39 Broad summary of Photosynthesis 39 Photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy 39 LightDependent Reactions 39 convert light energy into ATP and NADPH 39 Oxidize H20 and releases 02 39 LightIndependent Reactions or the Calvin Cycle 39 Reduce C02 to produce sugar Thursday October 8 2015 39 Use energy stored in ATP and NADPH by lightdependent reactions 39 Converts light energy to the chemical energy of food 39 Chloroplasts are structurally similar to photosynthetic bacteria and most likely evolved from these bacteria 39 The chemical reactions of photosynthesis occurs because of the structural organization of chloroplasts 39 Photosynthesis can be summarized as 39 6 C02 6 H20 Light energy C6H1206 6 02 39 Two Stages of Photosynthesis 39 Light Reactions Split H20 39 Release 02 Reduce NADP to NADPH 39 Generate ATP from ADP by photophosphorylation Figure 1064 A 235 J i Light Reactions Chloroplast Thursday October 8 2015 39 Clavin Cycle 39 forms sugar from C02 using ATP and NADPH begins with carbon xation 39 Light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy 39 chloroplasts form ATP and NADPH 39 similar to formation of ATP and NADPH in mitochondria 39 Pass highenergy to lower energy acceptors 39 Electrons must first be excited into a high energy state 39 using energy from sunlight Light Receptors 39 Pigments substances that absorb visible light 39 different pigments absorb different wavelengths 39 If a wavelength cannot be absorbed it is re ected 39 leaves loollt green because light re ects off of chlorophyll and transmits green light 1m 10395nm10393nm 1nm 103nm 106nm 109nm 103m Visible light 380 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 nm Shorter wavelength gt Longer wavelength Higher energy gt Lower energy 39 Calvin Cycle 39 Builds sugar from smaller molecules 39 uses ATP and reducing power of electrons being transported by NADPH Thursday October 8 2015 39 ATP and NADPH needed to power the cycle comes from light reactions 39 Calvin Cycle has three steps 39 Carbon xation catalyzed by rubisco 39 Reduction 39 Regeneration of the C02 acceptor RuBP for synthesis of 1 G3P the cycle must repeat 3 times 39 glyceraldehyde 3phosphate G3P sugar produced in the calVin CYC1e from 02 H 20 Light f i a K l NADP x x Q 39 N V quotquot39GHTquotquot E l Iquot i REACTIONS E 1 J I I KKK M up 02 Thursday October 8 2015 39 Importance of Photosynthesis 39 Light energy entering the chloroplasts get stored as chemical energy 39 sugar made in the chloroplasts supply chemical energy to synthesize the organic molecule 39 Plants store excess sugar as starch 39 stored in roots tuber seeds and fruits 39 photosynthesis produces the 02 in our atmosphere Light Reactions PhotoSystem 11 Calvin Eledtron transport chain cycle Photosystem I Electron transport c Chloroplast We to port Thursday October 1 2015 BSC 2010 0001 Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Six Key Concepts Metabolic pathways transfer energy through redox reactions Glycolysis begins the oxidation of glucose 39 cells make a metabolic decision after glycolysis based on 2 presence 39 When there is no 02 present cell proceeds with fermentation 39 When 02 is present cell can extract more energy from glucose 39 The breakdown of glucose to C02 is completed by the citric acid cycle 39 Oxidative phosphorylation uses the breakdown of 02 to drive ATP synthesis Cellular respiration extracts energy from macromolecules in addition to Light ener I ECOSYSTEM r U Photosynthesis in chloroplasts CO2 H20 organic 02 molecules 39 I Cellular respiration l I in mitochondria I 5 ATP powers E most cellular work sugars Thursday October 1 2015 Metabolic Pathways oxidize organic fuels to extract energy There are several processes necessary to cellular respiration and pathways Cellular Respiration Redox Reactions Oxidation and Reductions The release of energy stored in organic molecules through the transfer of electrons during chemical reactions The energy released is used to synthesis ATP Redox Principle Redox reactions are chemical reactions that transfer electrons between the reactants Oxidation is the process by which the substance loses electrons Reduction is the process by which the substance gains electrons positive charge is reduced Example molecule of O2 I gt I Oxidation of molecules Respiration molecule of H2O 39 o H o O Organic fuel Oxidative phosphorylation electron transpo up and through Cellular P ruvate GlycolySIs ixidatio 7 Glucose gt Pyruvate Acetyl CoA f I chemiosmosis 39 H Til 39 ll Su bstratelevel phosphorylation CYTOSOL Oxidative phosphorylation Substratelevel phosphorylation Thursday October 1 2015 During Cellular Respiration Fuel ex glucose is oxidized 02 is reduced Stages of Cellular Respiration 1 Glycolysis break down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate 2 Oxidation of Pyruvate begins the break down of pyruvate DO Citric Acid cycle completes break down of pyruvate into C02 4 Oxidative Phosphorylation ATP synthesis Glycolysis harvests chemical energy Glycolysis the splitting of sugar breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate occurs in the cytoplasm and has two major phases Energy investment phase Energy payoff phase Glycolysis can occur Whether or not 02 is present NADH and pyruvate What happens to it Aerobic respiration breaks down pyruvate into C02 uses electron transport chain With 02 to generate ATP Fermentation passes electrons stored in NADH to 02 Pyruvate is not oxidized and no more ATP is produced occurs When oxygen is not present Types of Fermentation Consists of glycolysis plus reactions that regenerate NAD Thursday October 1 2015 NAD can be reused by glycolysis Two common types Alcohol fermentation Alcohol fermentation i CH3 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetaldehyde lactic acid fermentation Lactic acid fermentation 2 ADP li 2 Glucose I Glycolysis gt I i i a a 7 CH I 2 H 3 c O 2 Pyruvate I H li OH lt J CH3 Thursday October 1 2015 Pyruvate is oxidized in the presence of 02 In the Presence of 2 Pyruvate enters the mitochondria Where glucose oxidation is completed Oxidation of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA To begin the citric acid cycle pyruvate must be converted into acetyl Coenzyme Carried out in three separate reactions Release of C02 Reduction of NAD to NADH Attachment of Coenzyme A Coenzyme A CYTOSOL Pyruvate Transport protein The Citric Acid Cycle Completes the break down of pyruvate into C02 Genergates 1 ATP 3 NADH and FADHZ has eight steps each are catalyzed by a speci c enzyme Step 1 The acetyl group of CoA combines With oxaloacetate forming citrate Thursday October 1 2015 Step 28 decomposes the citrate back to oxaloacetate CO CH3 Acetyl CoA CoASH coo H2 u Hc coo HO CH coo 39itrate NAD H20 1 ll FAD c0039 e 39 Succinate GTP GDP Succinyl H CoA ADP 2011 Pearson Education Inc During oxidative phosphorylation after glycolysis and the citric acid cycle NADH and FADHZ have the most energy extracted donate electrons to the electron transport chain this powers ATP synthesis Electron Transport The inner membrane or cristae of the mitochondrion Most of the components are proteins existing in multiprotein complexes carriers alternate between reduced and oxidized states Thursday October 1 2015 accept and donate electrons Electrons reduce free energy as they move down the chain Energy Harvest via NAD glucose and organic molecules are broken down in cellular respiration electrons are transferred to NAD NAD functions as an oxidizing agent Each NADH the reduced form of NAD stores energy to synthesis ATP NADH passes electrons through the electron transport chain the electron transport chain passes electrons through steps instead of through a single explosive reaction 02 pulls electrons down the chain The energy created is used to regenerate ATP Why is there so much stored energy in Hydrocarbons CH bonds are unstable Carbon and hydrogen are not very electronegative loose grip on their shared electrons Electrons attached to an atom With more electronegativity are more stable less potential energy Electrons are transferred from NADH to FADH2 Proteins like cytochromes pass electrons to 02 No ATP is directly generated by the electron transport chain What are the manageable amounts of energy used for the electron transfer in the electron transport chain causes proteins to pump H into the inter membrane space from the mitochondrial matriX H moves through the protein ATP synthase Thursday October 1 2015 a transmembrane protein that harnesses the energy released when H ions move across the mitochondrial membrane against their concentration gradient ATP synthase drives phosphorylation of ATP Example of chemiosmosis the use of energy to drive cellular work Energy that is stored in the PH gradient couples the redox reactions to ATP synthesis H gradient is called protonmotive force showing its capacity to do work ATP Production by cellular respiration during cellular respiration the majority of energy ows glucose 7gt NADH 7gt electron transport chain igt protonmotive force igt ATP About 34 of energy from the glucose molecule is transferred to ATP making approximately 32 ATP Energy flow during cellular respiration FADH2 Glucose gt NADH gt ETC gt H motive force gt ATP xquot spawn momma Fermentation Vs Aerobic Respiration Both use glycolysis to oxidize glucose and gather chemical energy Thursday October 1 2015 NAD is the oxidizing agent in both processes Different nal electron acceptors organic molecule pyruvate or acetalolehyole Fermentation 02 Cellular respiration Cellular respiration produces 32 ATP Fermentation prooluces 2 ATP Evolutionary importance of Glycolysis Ancient Prokaryotes believed to have used glycolysis before there was oxygen present used only glycolysis to generate ATP Evolutionarily cellular respiration is more recent Glycolysis and the Citric acid cycle connections to other metabolic pathways Major intersections to multiple catabolic anol anabolic pathways Used the catabolic pathway of glucose oxidation but applies to other pI OCGSSGS
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