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Origins of Language

by: tess2019

Origins of Language 43683 - UHC 110 - 998

GPA 4.0
The Experience of Language - Honors

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About this Document

Discusses different types of theories regarding where language originated. Late September lectures
The Experience of Language - Honors
Class Notes
origins of language, gestural theory, gossip theory, kin theory, Language, buchanan, UHC 110, presidential scholars
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by tess2019 on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 43683 - UHC 110 - 998 at Missouri State University taught by Buchanan in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see The Experience of Language - Honors in OTHER at Missouri State University.

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Date Created: 10/08/15
Language Origins Monday September 21 2015 1015 AM Gestural Theory Generativity The creativity of language 0 No limit to the numberof things we can say Universal grammar the ability to generate sentences no one has heard before and we can understand their meaning automatically Other language eg animals is limited to stimulus Stimulus with a fixed number of responses Behaviorism Human language is not necessarily tied to a specific stimulus and is very creative Language couldn39t have evolved totally from sound so maybe there39s another reason 0 We started with hand gestures and basic vocalizations which then switched to more complex sounds as the need arose to convey more information Evolved to have more complex sounds Ancestors had more developed areas ofthe brain forgestures motor cortex 0 Mirror neurons neurons that active in doing an action and thinkingwatching an action 39 Embodied cognition theory 0 Broca39s Area 39 By the temple ofthe frontal lobe 39 Controlslanguage planningproduction 39 Also a set of mirror neurons involved in perspective taking 0 Wernicke39s Area I By the ear in the parietal lobe 39 Controls language processing 39I39L JI J III III 4 I JL L I LL 39 Ine SWIICn IO plpeuansm WHIKlng on IWO legS gave me nanus tne freedom to do the talking Communication especially important for survival 0 However hand talking would be much preferred quieter o Gesturing is an iconic part to language Iconic language slowly evolves to symbolic language 0 Bowwow theory Support for Gestural Theory 0 Religious communities 0 Sign language 0 The evolution of sign language in deaf communities 0 Blind communities The Brain 0 Left brain 0 Normally carries the language processing centers 0 Right brain 0 Normally carries the spatial processing centers 0 This split depends on handedness o Handedness theory Pros Cons Ancestors used brain for gestures Not clear more 0 Not all gestures mean the same 0 Universal language thing 0 More stealthy Vocalizations are still a thing 0 Language is symbolic Gestures are a quotfifth wheelquot 0 Hand dominance cortex came with language separation leftright Ignores social development 0 Blind people gesture Baby language development 0 Sign language development Gossip Theory Where do you think the negative definition of gossip comes from Religion rumors seen as talking behind backs Actual definition of gossip to talk to otherskin Gossip theory argues that language evolved as a way to form social groups 0 And thus survive evolutionarily Social Cognitionthe ability to do perspective talking and communicate thinking 0 To live in groups we have to balance the pressures of large groups with havinggroups 0 Language developed as a way to balance the pressures Role of language is to allow us to know what39s going on within our social network 0 Seek advice policing norms and loafers lying advertisement of ourselves Support for GossipTheory 65 of conversations are social in nature 0 Free rider problem Metaphors Pros Cons All animals have a quotlanguagequot AlmostTOO complex in the beginning necessary for survival requires partner hard forlanguage Social cognition amount 65 of inflation conversations social 0 Doesn39t explain evolving to disabilities 0 Free rider problem buta small Diversification oflanguage percentage 0 Small languages disappear Allowsfor complexity metaphors Vother Tongues IIIA BAIAAIIIAIAQ A39n 11 AA Lnnr llquot Ally nnnnn n n n a n an A n A 1 Av Ln IIll DCICLLIUIIE WCWIII UU Llllllgb LIIdL UCIICIIL UUI ECIICD UCIIIE JdbbCU UII UVCI LIIC help of other genes being passed on Mother tongues dialectlanguage Mother tongues are selected for because ofquothonestquot communication best genetic interest at heart 0 Honest communication signals that accurately convey information about the signaler gender size species etc 39 Most signaling appears honest because of physical traits that are predetermined like vocal tract length forsize and dishonest cues are an adaptive trait Semantic complexity exchange ofdetailed information is valuable Requirements for MotherTongues theory 0 Cheap honesty ability to send complex information at a low cost 0 Vocal imitation learn and reproduce acoustic signals Generativity ability to generate complex system of symbols Pros Cons Infants mimic parents from a Came as fifth wheel we recognize young age learn to speak early similarities because we have language Requires less energy than not the other way around gestures Fight bt culture and evolution designed Social group inout behavior to achieve genetic diversity language Explains dialect shows similarities Display characteristics women have better language different from animals 0 Development of larynx and facial muscles Dishonest signals


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