Bio 207 Week 5 lecture notes
Bio 207 Week 5 lecture notes 207/41320
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 207/41320 at University of St. Thomas taught by Lewis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Biology Week 5 Lecture Notes Scientific Method 0 Observation 0 Hypothesis HO falsifiable no difference from expected 0 Experiment has control and experimental group 0 Results 0 Conclusion 0 Null hypothesis No difference from expected The result will be the same Example coin toss null hypothesis it will provide the same numner of heads and tails Ch Squared Xquot2 o Called goodness of fit 0 Sum of deviation squared expected 0 Sum of observed expected squared expected 0 The bigger the sample size the smaller the chance of there being no difference 0 Results no difference small difference real difference but really don t care 0 120 rule of thumb if greater than 120 than the result is significant 0 Example Normal trait Qq 1000 n Expected Q q Q QQ QOI q Qq qq QQQq 2qq Phenotype 750250 Genotype 31 Observed Q 0 Q 275 289 q 285 181 Phenotype 819181 0 Null hypothesis do our results differ from a 31 ration null yes there will be a 31 ratio Xquot2 Math Observed 819 181 Expected 750 250 Deviation OE 69 69 Deviation quot2 4761 4761 DAZ E 635 1904 Xquot2 2539 Degrees of freedom 2 columns 1 1 Critical value 384 Chi squared 2539 value greater than 384 highly significant results 0 Why use Xquot2 0 Know what you expected want to know if you deviated from the expected Sex Linked Traits 0 Normal trait on homologous pairs and can cross over 0 Sex linked normal but not on autosomal rarely Y linked X linked common 0 Use XY system XY male XX female ZW bird system ZW female 22 male XO insects XX male X female Haploid system bees and wasps 0 Examples of crosses o Baldness recessive n a XquotN XquotN X XquotnY XquotN XquotN Xquotn XquotN Xquotn XquotN Xquotn Y XquotN Y XquotN Y No baldness shown b XquotN Xquotn X XquotN Y XquotN Xquotn XquotN XquotN XquotN XquotN Xquotn Y XquotN Y 1 male shows baldness c XquotN Xquotn X Xquotn Y XquotN Xquotn Xquotn XquotN Xquotn Y XquotN Y 1 male 1 female show baldness X Linked Diseases o Muscular dystrophy recessive 0 Male Pattern Baldness recessive o Hemophilia recessive o Rickets one type dominant o Barr Bodies only one X active in females random so mosaic Only 1 active the other is not See patches of mom dad XX chromsomes Barr body inactive X Null Hypothesis o No difference between what everyone would expect and what you got o No difference from control and experimental group o Prove experimental group to be different Gene Mapping o The closer something is the less likely it is to cross over 0 Ex A D 17 map units CD 12 BC 15 Percent crossing over not geographic lengths Math unit 5 map units 5 Why do we care Find mutations Crossing over between only the two endpoints 50 is the most you can get gene mapping gives the locus for the trait Four Kinds of Chromosomal Mutations o Mutation a change in the DNA 1 Deletion a chunk that covers the DNA disappears is deleted 2 Duplication a strand of DNA is doubled 3 Inversion the segment of DNA is reversed 4 Translocation a segment from one chromosome moves to a non homologous chromosome Nondisjunction o The chromosomes don t separate like they should 0 One cell ends up with an extra chromosome one ends up missing one in another Monosomatic short a chromosome only 1 in the diploid state Trisomatic extra chromosome 3 when you should have 2 in diploid Polyploidy many sets of chromosomes Can occur at any time in any place 0 Karyotype line up chromosomes according to size Trisomy 21 extra chromosome in 21St chromosome down syndrome Aneuploidy sex chromosomes XXY XYY male X XXX female Genomic imprinting environment has impact on the gene Mitochondria Organelle necessary for producing energy ADP ATP All have their own DNA All come from Mom Mitochondria DNA can be replaced with the DNA of another person Chloroplasts DNA in plants Plants have chloroplasts mitochondria and own DNA Bacterium have plasmids which have DNA 0 Sources of Genetic Variation 1 2 parents 2 crossing over in meiosis prophase I 3 Base pair mutations 4 Chromosomal mutations 3 and 4 is how asexually reproducing organisms have genetic variation most mutations are not helpful individuals vary some of variation is inheritable some of that inheritable variation is useful 0 Gene discrete unit of hereditary information built a sequence of DNA 0 Protein a biologically functioning molecules consisting of one or more polypeptides o Transcription synthesis of RNA from DNA copying 0 Translation the synthesis of polypeptides from RNA change from nucleotides to amino acids 0 Polypeptide a polymer of amino acids One gene one or more proteins with splicing or RNA What is the DNA code o 3 parts sugar phosphate and a base A T C G DNA deoxyribose sugar RNA ribose 1 strand G always pair with C A always pair with T Hydrogen bonds hold bases together Covalent bonds hold sugar and phosphate together 0 Amino Acid Structure Carboxyl R Group most important Amino group Hydrogen part We can make 1015 amino acids in our body Our body needs 20 amino acids 40 are found in nature Codons Need 3 2 is not enough 4 is too many AUG codes for start
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