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Week 2 of Astronomy

by: Kassandra Murawski

Week 2 of Astronomy AST 101

Kassandra Murawski
U of M
Introductory Astronomy
Terry Jones

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About this Document

Includes: History of Astronomy w/diagrams
Introductory Astronomy
Terry Jones
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kassandra Murawski on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AST 101 at University of Minnesota taught by Terry Jones in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Astronomy in Astronomy at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 10/08/15
History of Astronomy Cont oz Cultural model 0 Does not use math or make a prediction oz Greek Geocentric Model 0 First scienti c model 0 quotearthcenterquot model Planets are wanderers and do not stay with the stars Sun rotates counterclockwise around earth see stars once a year k They thought that they could predict where the planet would end up in a month the black line distance expected based on this theory but the planet was not there Problem Retrograde Motion l Planet makes a loop in the sky 393 Actual planet rotation is a small circle within a large cycle Ptolemy c 90 c 168 393 Advanced for his time oz Ptolemeic Model 0 Made changes to the older Geocentric model Little tweeks like rate of planets and earth little off center Nicholas Copernicus 14731543 0 Devout Catholic but challenges Church s view of central earth theory 393 Had problem with Ptolemeic Model 0 Not modern too traditional and followed Greek theory Heavens are perfect and circlesmotion are smooth 393 Put sun at the center of universe little off center Heliocentric Model Sun at center Problems with this model 1 Earth rotates once a day 2 Earth revolves around the sun once a year 3 We should see stellar parallax but we do not Stellar Parallax should have been able to see same star at different angleslevels but no one saw it CONCLUSION NOT MORE ACCURATE oz Catholic Church would have accepted it BUT PROTESTANT REFORMATION HAPPENED 0 Northern Europe adopted the Copernican Theory not so much for accuracy but to symbolize further intellectual separation from Rome and the church That is why this model made its stake in history Tycho Brahe 15461601 Denmark oz Dressed well because believed that there were two types Of people aristocrats and peasants oz Last naked eye astronomer no telescope O Last GREAT one O Best observations at the time In particular good observations Of Mars Johanes Kepler 15711630 oz Inherited Brahe s observations O Had tO go tO court versus Brahe s family Was the last great astronomer and astrologer separated after First scientist tO use logarithms Was a part Of the Protestant Reformation Lutheran O NO problem with heliocentric theoryheavens did not have tO be perfect Calculated the shape imperfect orbits 5 Fast r Slower O O O 90 90 90 O 90 39 39 FIRST ACTUAL ACCURATE OBSERVATIONS AS TO WHAT IS GOING ON IN THE SKY Galileo Galilei 15641642 oz Supported HeliocentriC theory and proved it correct O Went against Catholic Church s geocentriC belief Would not recant belief because political upheaval O Catholic ChurCh ended up handling forced him tO retire and made his books forbidden oz Made a telescope O Pointed it at the heavens normally pointed tO sea Discovered that moon is not smooth Discovered Milky Way millions Of stars Discovered sun spots not perfect O O O O Observed Jupiter s moons Moons were orbiting Jupiter NOT the earth or the sun so like its own solar system oz His other discoveries O O O O 0 Isaac Newton Concept of inertia Early ideas of gravity as a force Scaling from insects to elephants is not possible exoskeleton cannot support Showed speed of light was VERY fast Heat was internal motions Slow molecule motion cold Fast molecule motion hot Figured out pendulum keeping time 16431727 oz Made a re ecting telescope oz Used mathematics to describe physical processes rst 0 Different realm of physics took off after this 393 Laws of Motion 0 0 Law of Inertia an object in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an external force Force mass x acceleration Mass how much quotstuffquot there is 0 Same on moon and earth Weight force between you and earth 0 Different on moon and earth Equal and opposite forces for every action there is an equal or opposite reaction Universal Law of Gravity F GMlxM2d2 Gravity gets strong quickly and weak quickly 0 Not linear


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