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October 6 and October 8

by: Jade Maynard

October 6 and October 8 GWSS 357 A

Jade Maynard
GPA 3.93
Psychobiology of Women
Nancy Kenney

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About this Document

Covers embryological sex differences (how sex is determined at birth) and the beginnings of anatomy (ovaries)
Psychobiology of Women
Nancy Kenney
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jade Maynard on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GWSS 357 A at University of Washington taught by Nancy Kenney in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Psychobiology of Women in Women and Gender studies at University of Washington.

Popular in Women and Gender studies


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Date Created: 10/08/15
Psychobiology of Women Lecture Notes Tuesday October 6 Embryological Sex Differentiation 0 Sex determination occurs in independent stages as the embryo develops 0 Bipotentiality The potential of undifferentiated structures to take the male or female path at any point during differentiation regardless of what happened in previous stages 0 Stage 1 Chromosomal Sex 0 O O O Determined at conception Out of the typical 46 human chromosomes only two are sex chromosomes in females they are XX and in males they are XY Bipotentiality at this stage means that while the ovum has an X chromosome the sperm has either X or Y so that the embryo can become either XX or XY I Y sperm move faster and have 70 genes on them I X sperm live longer and have over 1000 genes on them Variations occur in 1400 people assigned male at birth and 1700 people assigned female at birth although at least one X chromosome must always be present for the embryo to survive Turner Syndrome I An egg is fertilized by a sperm without a sex chromosome so that the configuration looks like this XO I Occurs in 13500 births I Individuals are generally raised female and no more likely than others to reject their gender I These individuals do not have functional ovaries and they can t develop secondary sex characteristics because of their lack of estrogen I Their gonads remain undifferentiated and are called gonadal streaks A person can have up to 15 sex chromosomes and the greater the number the more likely they are to have nonsexrelated chromosomal differences 0 Stage 2 Gonadal Sex 0 Gonads Glands that produce reproductive germ cells sperm and ova individuals typically have two testes or ovaries and they begin to differentiate 6 weeks after conception Undifferentiated gonads have a cortex outer rind and a medulla inner core Development of Testes I Requires a functional Y chromosome I Requires an SRY gene that stimulates an autosome to produce the HY antigen I This stimulates the medulla to develop into testes and the cortex to fade away I The presence of a functional Y chromosome will result in testes no matter how many X chromosomes an individual has 0 Development of Ovaries I Requires the migration of primordial germ cells PGCs from the yolk sac of the embryo to the gonads I When the PGCs arrive they are surrounded by cortical cells which form the ovarian follicle I Requires the absence of a functional Y chromosome and the presence of two functional X chromosomes I The cortex develops into ovaries while the medulla fades away 0 Stage 3 Internal Genitalia 0 Internal genitalia develops from a different set of raw materials than the gonads O The raw materials Wolffian Ducts and Mullerian Ducts appear in all developing individuals regardless of step 1 and step 2 0 Male Internal Genitalia Seminal vesicles epididymis ejaculatory ducts and tubes I Requires production of and response to androgens the Mullerian inhibiting factor and inductor substance I These are produced by the newlyformed testes I The Wolffian Ducts are stimulated while the Mullerian Ducts regress 0 Female Internal Genitalia Uterus oviducts vagina I Requires the absence ofinability to respond to androgens the Mullerian inhibiting factor and inductor substance I The Mullerian Ducts develop while the Wolffian Ducts regress Thursday October 8 Embryological Sex Differentiation cont and Ovaries 0 Stage 4 External Genitalia 0 Raw Materials Genital tubercle labioscrotal swelling urogenital fold found in all developing individuals regardless of chromosomes gonads or internal genitalia 0 Male I Must have androgens and receptors that recognize its presence I Genital tubercule becomes the penis I Labioscrotal swelling becomes the scrotal sacscrotum I Urogenital fold becomes the urethra 0 Female I Absenceinability to respond to androgens I Genital tubercule becomes the clitoris I Labioscrotal swelling becomes the labia majora I Urogenital fold becomes the labia minora 0 Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome AIS I Lack androgen receptors I XY chromosomes normal testes I Internal genitalia is ambiguous but external genitalia is female I Can t menstruate although they develop female secondary sex characteristics I Typically raised female and identify as female 0 Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia CAH I Excess of androgen malfunction of the adrenal gland I Effects vary depending on when increased androgen starts and how high the levels are I May mean ambiguous internal genitalia and malelike internal genitalia in XX individuals with ovaries Ovaries 0 Female gonads secured in the pelvic cavity by three estrogensensitive ligaments 0 Immature Ova O 20 weeks post conception there are 7 million in the fetal ovary 0 At birth 4000001 million remain 0 At puberty 50000 remain O 400 are released at ovulation between puberty and menopause I Ovaries contain two sequentially present endocrine glands which produce hormones 0 During the preovulatory phase this is the ovarian follicle or more specifically the Graafian follicle 0 During the postovulatory phase this is the corpus lutem 0 Monthly Cycle 0 Runs from Day 1 start of menses to Day 1 of the next month 0 First Half Day 1Ovulation I Also known as the preovulatory phase in reference to the length of time it takes variable for all individuals I Also known as the follicular phase in reference to the source of hormones within the ovary 0 Second Half I Lasts 14 or 2 days relatively fixed time frame for all individuals I Also known as the postovulatory phase in reference to the length of time it takes I Also known as the luteal phase in reference to what s going on in the ovary I Also known as the secretory phase in reference to what s going on in the uterus O Graafian Follicle Houses the ovum that will be released from the ovary out of the 20 immature ova that start this process it is the only one to survive 0 Changes in the Graafian follicle I Proliferation of follicular cells in terms of both size and number 39 Increase in follicular uid I Maturation of ovum


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