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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Rapp on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2070 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Sheila Flemming in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biopsychology in Psychlogy at The University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Body Senses Function of Somatosensory System Lets you know when you are standing or falling 0 hurt yourself Cover the burn with a sterile bandage Body Senses Somatosensory system It is both an exteroceptive and interoceptive system Interoceptive monitoring internal bodily events and informing the brain of the positions of body segments relative to one another and of the position of the body in space Somatosensory submodalities 1 nociception the perception of unpleasant noxious stimuli pain and temperature 2 Hapsis the perception of objects with the use of fine touch and pressure 3 Proprioception body sense perception of the position and movement of the body limbs and head 4 Balance Sensory Receptors Stimulation of a touch receptor opens sodium channels what happens when you open sodium channels What is touch Where are touch receptors Touch is to use your skin to have physical contact with another object Touch receptors are located in clusters around your skin They look like onions orjelly material When they are squeezed the layers rub against each other causing an electrical nerve impulse the most sensitive touch receptors are located at your face back of the neck chest arm upper fingers soles of feet and between legs Name Hair Follicle Ending Ruf ni Endings Krause corpuscle Pacinian corpuscle Meissner corpuscle Free nerve endings Merkel Location Hairy Skin Areas Dermis of hairy and glabrous hairless skin Lips tongue genitals deep layers of dermis in hairy and glabrus Dermis of glabrous skin hairless areas Throughout your skin Epidermis of glabrous skin Hair Sha Meissner39s corpuscles Sebac eous glands Pacianian corpuscles Pacianian corpuscles Function Responds to hair displacementmovement of hairs responds to pressure or stretch of skin Responds to pressure Responds to vibration sensitive at 150300 Hz Responds to vibration sensitive at 2040 Hz Different types of free nerve endings respond to mechanical thermal or noxious stimulation respond to pain warmth and cold Pores Epidermis Nerve endings Muscle Hair follicle Sweat gland Blood vessels Sensory Input Body A Cerebrum Primary somatic sensory cortex Midbrain r 3 Ventral posterior lateral Medial 39 39 nucleus of the thalamus lemniscus 6quot Midpons Medial lemniscus Rostral medulla Internal Gracile nucleus arcuate fibers Caudal medulla W Gracile tract Cuneate tract Mechanosensory receptors from upper body Cervical spinal r 3 cord Lumbar spinal cord Mechanosensory receptors from lower body 2008 Sinauer Associates Inc Touch receptors in the body send info to the CNS via spinal cord Sensory Input Face B Primary V somatic sensory cortex Ventral posterior medial nucleus of thalamus Trigeminal lemniscus Trigeminal 39 1 7 S Medial lemnlscus Principal nucleus Mechanosensory of trigeminal receptors from face complex NEUROSCIENCE Fourth Edition Figure 98 Part 2 2008 Slnauer Associates Inc Touch receptors in the head send info to CNS via the cranial nerve Dermatones branches Sacral Lumbar Thoracic Cervical P39 gt Cervical gt Thoracic gt Lumbar gt Sacral BOX 2008 SlnauerAssociateslnc Dermatone the skins area connected to a single sensory spinal nerve or also described as the innervation arising from a single dorsal root ganglion and its spinal nerve Dysfunction Peripheral neuropathies damage to peripheral nervous system typically in hands or feet proprioceptive disorders diminished postural and increased instability Hemispatial neglect deficit inattention to one side of body T u3939 pie with emispati I l 39 or simp r7 l l 5 are slowe39 a erience on L E of their worl mpared to th ther and gt egard one ha i ely as if it ha j ceased to exi quot l gVIoctatRobcrtsom 9 nilwe Neuroscience Pain Function Persons lacking pain receptors are at great risk n v pain stimuli induc speciestypicalescape and withdrwal responses Pain is a motivational force that can activate behavior Pain involves tissue destruction induced by Thermal stimuli Mechanical force Pain reception is poorly localized as is temperature ex Fast pain like hitting thumb with hammer is precisely localized while slow pain such as arthritis in the hip joint is localized to the whole hip but not the specific area of disease Pain involves an emotional component that can be use to modify the magnitude of pain perception Receptors for pain nociceptors Free nerve endings networks within the skin that respond to intense pressure Free nerve endings heat acids and capsaicin mammals only Birds dont Pain receptors are found in skin Sheath around muscles internal organs Cornea of the eye Pulp of the teeth Pain receptors are activated by mechanical chemical stimulation Analgesia refers to the reduction of the perception of pain Analgesia can be induced by external and internal stimuli Hypnosis Massage Acupuncture Opiates Placebo Attention shifts Pain stimuli activate primary Somatosensory cortex and theanterior cingulate cortex The anterior cingulate cortex is involved in the aversiveness or emotion of pain hypnosis and PET scanner study nuclei of thalamus Neoconex Hippocampus Errtorhinal codex 32M Cingulate gyms Mammilary bodies quot J Entorhinal cortex Introduction to taste and smell Taste and smell are chemical senses They give us information about the chemical composition of our surroundings Taste is an immediate sense a final checkpoint for the acceptablity of food before it enters the body Smell is a more distant sense allowing us to detect small concentrations of airborne substances Taste and smell only separated when animals moved to land Since in the sea all chemicals are dissolved in the same medium water there is no need for two separate senses Fish and other sea creatures haveone general chemical sense Taste is not just in the mouth Catfish have chemoreceptors all along their body a catfish is like a giant tongue and flies have receptors on their feet so that they can tell immediately upon landing whether an object is good to eat l Taste Why do we need taste Taste is a gatekeeper sensory mechanism designed to test food and other substances before they enter the body Things that are potentially useful for the body tend to taste good and things that are potentially harmful taste bad Anatomy of Taste The tongue contains many ridges and valleys called papillae There are four types of papillae Filiform papillae cone shaped amp found all over the tongue which is why tongues look rough Fungiform papillaemushroom shaped and found at the tip and sides Foliate papillae a series of folds along the sides of thetongue Circumvallate papillae shaped like flat mounds surrounded by a trench and found at the back of thetongue All papillae except filiformcontain taste buds so the very center of your tongue which only has filiform papillae is taste blind lift Jl39ro39ln o ll 139 I 39v l 4 x39 f 39 v 39t 1 Foliatequot t r k r Filiform o Oi 1 o t b s I r 39 r 3 quotIf1uff f g u 39aste cud a walk l U l Fmglorm partulla 39 i I I l Each contains a number of taste cells which have tips that protrude into the taste pore Taste bud Fungiorm paptlla T0310 coquot quot Nerve that The Taste Pathway Signal transduction occurs when different taste substances Different substances affect in different ways substances bind into receptor sites which release other substances into the cell substances contain Hydrogen ions that channels in the membrane substances break up into ions which flow through the membrane directly into the cell 394 J Ma one1 50m 5 39 i i 839quot v f l n l If t f g v Receptors on lc of taste cel Electrical signals generated in the taste cells are transmitted in three pathways The nerve conducts signals from the front and sides of the tongue The nerve conducts signals from the back of the tongue The conducts taste signals from the mouth and the larynx These three nerves make connections in the brain stem in the nucleus of the solitary tract NST before going on to the and then to two regions of the frontal lobe the insula and the frontal operculum cortex Frontal operculum lnsula Temporal lobes Glossopharyngeal nerve Vagus nerve Nucleus of the solitary tract The Neural Code for Taste What tastes do we taste The four basic tastes are All of our taste sensations can be described as a combination of these four basic tastes are most sensitive to different tastes Experience of Taste Your experience of taste depends on your on your familiar foods generally taste better than unfamiliar foods and your people have different sensitivities to certain tastes Taste experience is also subject to effects of adaptation Why does orange juice taste gross after you39ve just brushed your teeth Our sensation of taste also depends heavily on smell and texture touch Ever notice how food just doesn39t taste that good when you have a stuffed up nose D With small 100 3 Without smolf 80 H 60 gt 5 o E o 8 o 30 O 20 O quot 1 1 Water Vinegar Whitlkey Wme Coffee Chocolate Garlic Substance to be idemmed