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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maddie Rapp on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2070 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Sheila Flemming in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Biopsychology in Psychlogy at The University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Brain and Behavior A Biological Psychologist s Questions about Behavior 1 Physiology How does the brain or other organs produce the Behavior 2 ontogenetic How did the behavior develop 3 Evolution How did the the behavior evolve 4 function Why did the structure evolve Example Birdsong 1 physiology What Brain areas are contributing to the behavior Male songbirds sing Area X of Iobus parofactorius hyperstriatum ventrale robust nucleus of the archistriatum and hypoglossal Nucleus are all larger than in mature breeding male songbirds compared to females or nonbreeding males 2 Ontogentic How did the behavior develop Songbirds learn the song from other birds at a critical period during their lives and Requires the DNA machinery as well as experience to develop the song 3 Evolution How did the the behavior evolve Sexual selection a certain type of song is more attractive to females than others 4 Function Why did the structure evolve To attract females and scare off other males to reduce competition Research Questions 1 How do changes in the brain affect behavior 2 How do changes in behavior affect the brain Experimental PsychologyGeneticsMolecuar Biology9 Neuroscience The Central Dogna 0 Molecular Biology II p 3 3 3 3 I j ended ianZIr39rI39IatiICIn Ill mm nmtmnf 33m rep1133t1n 1 r a W FITU r I I Iati III I l Treneer39i men F Nii39i 3IJrithr331rf I IIIIIIdEd infer I I39Iatililn 032323te into i Fir1e during tr 3rIEIr391ptien Tr e neietie n I i39IfIZI r39 FI39IEIti IZI Fl iquot391P3IE3P3 I39ll f39 R Nquot 3933 r H 3933 jzujuje d 1 r39n39o r39 meti D n t0 r1 banana me d U M W Ir39IZItei n 3 IJ nt heei IE F N The Duel etepe here Proteins refuse to 31 er I 3 n u 139 n fe r me D n Gregor Mendel Inheritance of genes F39r39etei n F39 r etei n 3 p re de etr ucztur e 3 nd he p eer39ru out 3 meet all bithygienai Blizti t I quot F39r etei rI Genes and Environment NatureNurture question Difficult to distinguish between heredity and environmental influences adopted child s performance in school Estimate heritability by comparing identical And fraternal twins Even in controlled experiments subjects respond differently to different situations elevated plus maze Animals in Research Cornerstone of Neuroscience Why Animal Research 1 Underlying mechanisms of behavior similar across species ex Cerebellum is important for movement in humans monkeys mice an other species 2 What we learn from animals can reveal insights into human condi39 3 Research on animals to benefit animals ex Hip problems in dogs 4 Experiments cannot be performed in humans for ethical reasons Animal Activists Minimalists tolerate anaimal research under certain conditions depending upon the value of the research ex Lead to a treatment for certain disease or testing the toxicity of ey Abolitionists More extreme and feel that all animals have the same rights as humans NO EXCEPTIONS Institutional Regulations Concerning Animal Research 1 Animals are of value and are of value in and of themselves 2 Principles of reduction use fewer animals replacement use methods that do not require animals whenever possible and refinement reduce pain 3 Animal welfare research 4 Have research experiments evaluated by people other than the researchers themselves 5 Assume that if a procedure would be painful to humans that it would also be painful to animals Institutional Regulations Concerning Animal Research Continued 6 Training of investigators on ethics and animal care 7 Published research must include a statement of ethical use of animals Central Nervous System CNS Brain spinal cord Cranial Central n eryes KRAYneeul are in your new es go from brain and your brain to spinal cord youreyes mouth ears and other parts of yourhead Peripheral puhRlFuhrul nery es go from your spinal cord to your arms hands legs and feet Autonomic aw to h NOM ik nery es go from your spinal cord to your lungs heart stomach intestines bladder and sex organs Neurons and Glial cells Weight 14OO g 3 lb 1 Frontal Lobe Reasoning 1 Parietal Lobe touch 1 ccipital lobe Vision 1 Temporal Lobe audititor Cerebellum Motor Coordination Some cell body Nucleus Myelin sheath O 2000 John Wiley 8 Sons Inc amon y Cajal Pioneer of neuroscience Applied Golgi stain silver salts stains some cells but not all to infant brains Showed cells are separate from one another Cell Structure Plasma Membrane separates the insideoutside of a cell protein channels are embedded in the membrane that allow certain ions sodium potassium calcium and chloride to pass through at a controlled rate Maintaining Resting Potential K and Na can t diffuse across bilayer Nat pumped K intersitial out leaks out fluid outside membrane neuron39s plasma membrane In M w I t l j rd cytoplasm next to the 02001 amokucue Thomson Learning Na leaks K K membrane in pumped in leaks in Mitochondria power house of the cell produces adenosine triphosphate ATP Located in cytoplasm contains chromosomes DNA ATP synthase particles inter membrane space cristae Ribosome Inner membrane Outer membrane DNA Ribosomes synthesizes new proteins attached to endoplasmic reticulum that facilitates transport of synthesized proteins mitochondria nucleus cytoplasm ribosomes a chromosome Dendrite Axon terminal button Soma cell body 9quot 1 g NUCIGUS g l xxx AKX Axon Myelin sheath Soma cell body contains nucleus ribosomes mitochondria etc Can range in size from 0005 01 mm Dendrites branching fibers with synaptic receptors for receiving in Dendrite spines short outgrowths from the dendrite this l Surface area available for synapses bu on Soma cell body b r A Nucleus N 1 J Dendrite Axon terminal 3 rquot f i fquot Axon Myelin sheath axonconveys an impulse toward other neurons only one axon per cell Can be as long as a meter or more spinal cordfeet Myelin Sheath made from oligodendrocytes schwann cells cells increases signal conduction Nodes of ranvier exposed areas between myelin sheath Contain high density of sodium channels and allows Action potential to jump from one node to another Central n eryes are in your brain and Cranial KRAYnee ulJ neryes go from Dendrite Axon your brain to spinal cord terminal your 9393 bumquot mouth ears and other Some cell body parts of your head Nucleus Axon Peripheral puhRIFuhrul newes go from your spinal cord to your arms quotJ 2000 Jnhn Wiley amp Sons In hands legsI and feet Myelin sheath Autonomic awtoh NOM ik nenr es go from your spinal cord to your lungs heart stomach intestines bladder and sex organs Presvnaptic terminal Area where neurochemicals are released Sensory and motor neurons all sensory neurons are afferent Inwar Neurons because they bring info to the CNS while every Motor neurons is efferentOutward because it carries info away fror the CNS Glial Cells Provide structural support and nutrition to neurons transmit info across short distances Astrocytes surround presynaptic terminals and takes up released chemicals and then releases them back to the axon this helps to synchronize neuronal activity Clean up waste from dead neurons and plays a role in blood flow Glial Cells Microglial activation sequence Rammed Withdrawal Transitional Motlle Locomotory Rstage INstage Tstage Maslage Lstage Ac tion 5 I Retractlon of extant branches Time gt Motility protrusion amp retraction Locomotion Microglia Clean up waste from dead neurons in addition to other microorganisms such as viruses and fungi considered immune cells because they become activated during injury and contribute to the immune response Glial Cells Med39scalxtm wwwmedscapecom Neuron Node of Oligodendrocytes in the CNS build Qligudendrcryle Myelin 39 Myelin sheaths it u u 4H t lMacrophage Cell body Mai J u we Soma 39 J Endoplasmic reticulum 2 Nucleus Nucleolus ll l1 1 ll liE39 4v ynaptic endings Golgi apparatus a 0 Mt h d Schwann cell Dendrite we on on sheath around quot Q Axon hillock axon ud39l 139 etzuule v 2003 whitll Inu I Llpofuchsm Schwann cells in the PNS build Node of Ranvier n U39 Myelin sheaths ltilligllsiltlz39et A 1 Cell ENHng a 331 xf Bloul Vessel DNA 13quot l oslcapilla ry T Cell Adhean lo Ventlle 391 Blood Vessel Lumen Neuromuscularjunction Readial glia During development guides migration and growth of neurons Blood Brain Barrier Blood brain barrier A physiological mechanism that alters the permeability of the brain capillaries so that some substances are prevented from entering the brain while other substances are permitted into the brain What can cross Small uncharged molecules ie oxygen and carbon dioxide Molecules that dissolve in fat lipophilic such as vitamins A and D Some viruses syphilis and rabies What cant cross certain viiruses bacteria chemicals chemotherapy
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