Week Two: New World For All-English Colonization in the Chesapeake
Week Two: New World For All-English Colonization in the Chesapeake HIST 1376
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Yee on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1376 at University of Houston taught by Kelly Y Hopkins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see The United States To 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Indians in the Chesapeake 3 Powhatan Confederacy 30 Virgin Soil Epidemics 393 Smallpox 339 Domestic Animals 39339 Opechancanough 16171646 The Powhatan Confederacy consist of 30 different Indian nations there are 24000 natives The confederacy was owned by Powhatan Native Americans do not all live the same they have different concerns and problems Just because they re Indians does not mean they always get along When Europeans come across the Atlantic Ocean they seek to remake North America They want to extract its resources gold nd another form of wealth convert natives to Christianity bring the animals they are used to etc Europeans also brought things that they didn t see germs or microbes Many of these germs smallpox polio cholera malaria etc they brought with them had never been in North America before These germs bring devastating consequences for Native Americans Many of these diseases are known as quot Virgin Soil Epidemics As a result of Native Americans having no immunity to any of these illnesses the germs are going to devastate Indian populations The only disease originated in the Americas was syphilis Smallpox was the most devastating of the Virgin Soil Epidemics Smallpox travels on water molecules in the air and incubates in the body for two weeks it is being spread to everyone they talk to the mortality rate was 90 so it was hard for Native Americans to survive If they did survive they were terribly dis gured Europeans make sure to bring all their material possessions because they want to remake the landscape The global exchange is known as the Columbian Exchange the trade includes animals food nonconsumable crops etc The most popular traded items Crops Chicken pigs swarm like vermin cows Animals Apple citrus fruits coffee sugarcane wheat rice etc Items in America Avocado beans corn peppers squashes pumpkin tomato dog Since the Europeans do not pen up their animals they consume the lndian s food which causes a negative relationship and leads to early violence In 1614 Pocahontas married john Rolfe as a result of this interracial marriage there will be an end to most of the violence between colonists and Indians in Jamestown Pocahontas was a daughter of Powhatan The marriage leads to a period of peace However there are still some lingering problems As a result of those problems Powhatan was becoming very old in age and decided to step down as leader of the confederacy He transferred power to one of his own brothers in 1617 Opechancanough takes over the confederacy The relationship between colonists and Indians continue to deteriorate because of tobacco Tobacco quickly ruins soil fertility so colonists had to move onto new land There is a violent relationship that continues to escalate Opechancanough organizes a massive attack on Jamestown It takes place on March 1622 Colonists refer to this event as the quotMassacre of 1622 Native Americans killed 347 men women and children When the initial wave of violence is over colonists want their revenge but they wait until the fall of 1622 just when Native Americans were ready to harvest their crops Colonists burned Indian corn elds and communities Indians will suffer hunger starvation and cold during the winter Then in May of 1623 when Indians were at their lowest point colonists agree to a peace treaty Both sides drink a nice toast celebrating their newfound peace There were 250 Native American Indian Leaders and their drinks were poisoned so they all died it was a fake peace treaty Peace was not of cially concluded until 1632 The colonists demanded huge chunks of land as a price of peace Although Opechancanough agreed to this in 1632 he still despised the English he planned a second attack on the colonial settlements In April of 1644 Native Americans kill more than 400 colonists this war ends in 1646 when Opechancanough is captured After he is captured Opechancanough was put on parade through Jamestown at the time he was 100 years old and visually impaired he was also unable to walk While Opechancanough was on parade he was shot dead His death marks the end of Indian Resistance in the Chesapeake Bay The biggest problem for Indians were the population shift In 1607 there were 24000 Indians In 1616 there were 10000 and in 1650 there were 3000 The population rapidly decreased
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