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by: Emily Eiseman

crim102weekseven.pdf CJC 102 -2

Emily Eiseman
Jonathan Intravia

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no class on Friday! BUt don't forget to do the online assignment.
Jonathan Intravia
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Eiseman on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJC 102 -2 at Ball State University taught by Jonathan Intravia in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Ball State University.

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Date Created: 10/08/15
105 1 HEREDITY GENETICS AND CRIME a twin studies i two types of twins 1 Monozygotic MZ a 100 genetically identical 2 Dizygoticfraternal DZ a 50 genetically identical b Most twin studies report greater similarity in criminal behavior for identical MZ rather than fraternal DZ twins i as well as suicidal risk and depression risks c Major flaw studies fail to control for environmental impacts i identical twins may experience a more similar environment ii the environment may explain these findings rather than the genes 1 identical twins are more similar in genetics but also grew up in same environment 2 should test twins that were separated at birth d Adoption studies i compares adopted children with genetic and adoptive parents ii research shows a relationship between biological parents behavior and the behavior of their children even if they never had contact e Chromosomes i average person has 23 pairs of chromosomes 1 one pair determines the person s sex a xx female b xy male 2 XXY syndrome warrior gene a small number of men possess an extra Y chromosome i more aggressive more physical more violent ii many people in prison have this extra Y chromosome iii majority of men who have it don t know they have it iv it39s such rare gene that to get a conclusive result you would need to test everyone v research not conclusive f overall conclusions i mixed evidence to support that we are biologically programmed for certain types of behavior 1 aggression ii fail to account for the geographic social and temporal patterns in crime 1 some studies say it s not the biological factors in us but factors outside of our genes an environmental input to our personalities 2 PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE a concerns about psychological issues that may be related to criminality and violence studies on the psychological perspective attempt to establish a link between criminality and psychology Charles Goring i examined 3000 English convicts criminals vs noncriminals 1 found a relationship between crime and defective intelligence a feeblemindedness unintelligence epilepsy etc Major principles of the psychological approach i pathological personality ii maladaptation iii cognitive theory iv behaviorism The psychopath i individuals who are incapable of experiencing genuine emotions 1 fully comprehend their social environments but lack the ability to understand how others think or feel 2 personality dominated by lack of emotions ii characteristics 1 viewed as abnormally cruel and brutal chronic liars don t feel guilt or shame reckless incapable of maintaining long relationships antisocial 7 lack empath iii not all psychopaths turn into criminals iv no agreement as to the origin of the psychopathic personality 1 traumatic childhood experiences F erDN a neglect b violence c abuse 2 inherited neurological defects in brain v antisocial personality disorder APD 1 chronic mental illness a individual39s perception of the social world including ways of thinking and reacting to others is dysfunctional 2 traits a liars b cheaters c manipulators d violent 3 individuals exhibit high rates of criminality and repeat patterns of chronic offending a vast percentage of inmates suffer with APD vi Maladaptation 1 adaptation a the ways in which we react to and manage frustrations disappointments and hostile situations 2 maladaptation a inappropriate way of coping with the social environment i psychoanalysis ii neurosis iii psychosis 3 Psychoanalysis a founded by sigmund freud b method of understanding human behavior by examining drives and impulses within the unconscious mind c divided human mind into three components i ID EGO SUPEREGO d Id i born with it ii part of personality that seeks instant gratification for our immediate needs and wants iii doesn t consider feelings of others iv spontaneous greedy impulsive e Ego i takes the reality of situations into consideration ii developed over next few years 4 years of age iii what they want can not always be granted immediately f Superego i results from morals and values instilled by parents ii referred to as our conscience determine what is right from wrong iii developed around age 6 g Individuals with weak egos may lead to crime i because they fail to take into account the consideration of situations h a weak superego makes individuals unable to make appropriate moral judgments and likely to commit crime i because they have difficulty understanding the consequences of their actions ii self involved iii lack empathy 4 Neurosis a form of mental illness manifested by behavior expressing fear tension anxiety emotional distress i individuals are in touch with reality but cannot help themselves 1 depression 2 anxiety 3 panic attacks 4 phobias 5 ocd ii most individuals who have neurosis do not commit crime but some do 5 Psychosis a major form of mental illness manifested by the inability to comprehend reality think clearly respond properly b disrupts every aspect of life and make sit hard for them to function properly in society i symptoms 1 confusion 2 paranoia 3 hallucinations 4 social withdrawal ii does not always cause crime but may be linked to it 1 may hear voices in head to commit certain acts 2 spies for government make them do crazy things in their head 3 controlled by devil devil makes them do crazy things 6 Cognitive theory a branch of psychology that studies the mental processes of understanding perceiving and manipulating information b three components of cognitive processes i perception 1 accumulate data recognize certain information 2 recall consequences 3 recall past events ii judgement 1 organizes and evaluates our perceptions or information gathered 2 helps us make a decision 3 weigh risks Hi execu on 1 acting out decisions from judgement c distortion in cognitive processes has been used to explain criminal behavior 7 Behaviorism a behavior modeling i learning by watching listening copying what we see and hear 1 individuals may become violent and aggressive through life experiences that teach them to act that way 2 violence or abuse a learn about abusing others from the abuse they received as a child b learn about violence from T 107 1 Evaluating psychological theory a contributions i provides an understanding of crime that fills a void in the literature 1 psychopaths anti personality disorder ii helps us understand behaviors that environmental variables alone cannot explain 1 psychoanalysis 2 nerosis 3 reacting poorly within social environment iii has led to greater understanding of the role or personality in shaping human behavior 1 behavioral monitoring 2 how we receive interpret and manipulate iv how behaviors guide crime b Criticisms i assumes that individuals commit crime because they have some type of personalitymental problem ii does not account for social conditions 1 fails to explain variation in crime rates among different groups iii fails to account for changes in crime trends 1 poor for macro level analysis 2 Crime control strategies of psychological theories a predicting criminality before it occurs i identify risk factors and early warning signspredictors of future involvement in crime ii prevention programs iii family factors iv conduct disorders ADHD b responding to criminality after it occurs i behavior therapy ii cognitive skills training iii cognitive restructuring 1 better problem solvers 2 cope with anger and peer pressure 3 altering faulty cognitive processes SOCIAL STRUCTURE THEORIES 1 overview of social structure theories a crime is a social fact it exists outside the individual traitsvariations in human thoughtaction b primary cause of crime i where individuals live c social structure theories search for the cause of crime in the immediate conditions of society d Three independent yet overlapping branches i social disorganization theory ii strain theory 1 goals such as american dream iii subcultural theories 1 unique lower class culture with mainstream culture and values iv share common understanding that crime is due to society 2 Social disorganization Theory a rooted in Chicago IL i links high crime rates to the social and economic conditions of urban communities 1 the disordered nature of certain neighborhoods contributes to a deteriorating social life 2 social structures begin to collapse and fail to provide the necessary elements of a healthy community 3 chicago great example of a rapidly changing society 1830 s1910 a 4000 to 2 million population increase i mostly immigrants ii increase in industrialization b Park and Burgess concentric zones i background in human ecology 1 uses concepts derived from plant and animal ecology to understand how social conditions of the environment affect human behavior social competition for space zones a central business district CBD i occupied by stores and businesses b zone of transition c working class d residential areas e commuter areas c Shaw and Mckay i applied concentric zone theory to the study of delinquency took map of chicago in 1942 and matched them with juvenile arrest records 1 2 d Social ecology many arrests were clustered in certain areas crime existed amongst other problems such as poverty high unemployment low income main findings a areas furthest from CBD had lowest rates of crimedelinquency b crime delinquency were related with social problems including poverty unemployment and residential turnover c concluded crime is a characteristic of the community rather than individual characteristics i focuses on how ecological conditions influence human interactions and behaviors 1 F erDN 7 ii 1 community disorder community fear residential instability poverty concentration informal social control social cohesion and trust social control Community disorder areas where there are abandoned and deteriorating physically structures experience high crime rates a broken windows theory i unfixed broken window 1 gives perception that that is okay in that neighborhood vi vii Viii 2 social disorder a drugs b prostitution c no one is stopping it 3 fiscal disorder community fear 1 areas where residents are fearful decreases quality of life a consequences of fear b when people are fearful they change their behaviors i patterns of how they travel to work or day to day business residential instability 1 constantly changing areas a residents have fewer opportunities to develop strong personal ties to one another i in order to regulate neighborhood you have to get to know people in your neighborhood ii friendship and trust poverty concentration 1 urban areas with greatest poverty are more prone to crime a people are more isolated in these areas b less trusting c urban underclass i racist housing informal social control 1 nonofficial or non formal actions taken by residents to solve local problems collective efficacy 1 cohesive communities based on mutual trust including the intervention in supervising children and maintenance of public order social order 1 greater police presence more police patrol


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