Week Three: New England Colonization
Week Three: New England Colonization HIST 1376
Popular in The United States To 1877
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Yee on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1376 at University of Houston taught by Kelly Y Hopkins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see The United States To 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Puritans in New England 0 Separatists 0339 Great Migration 393 Independent Competency 0 Carrying Trade In New England there are a different kind of colonists the vast majority of them are those from the middle sorts skilled workers land owners business owners They were members of a stricter religious community the Puritans Puritans in Old England were a radical religious group persecuted for their religious beliefs Puritans sought to purify and clean up the Church of England they believed there was a lot of corruption They were troubled with a lot they saw in their society beggars thieves many people who did not go to church criminals gamblers drunks prostitutes Puritans also sought to purify society Puritans are concerned that if they don39t clean up church and society God is going to show his wrath on the community There is a very small radical element among Puritans who believed that you cannot clean up society in England within the community they must separate and leave England and create a whole brand new society these Puritans are known as Separatists These Separatists begin to organize their own separate colony By the year of 1620 the rst Puritans Separatists the Pilgrims come to New England they establish their community town at Plymouth their colony is also called Plymouth The rst group of Separatists were made up of 100 colonists half of them died in the rst winter After that they received lots of good fortune By 1630 their population is approximately 1500 people During the 16205 back in England things got more and more dif cult for Puritans The King died and his son ascended the throne he tried to smooth things over for Catholics the King also had a son who was going to be raised Catholic By 1630 things were so bad in England that mainstream Puritans are going to ee to New England They are going to establish their colonial town in Boston Massachusetts Bay Colony This is going to be referred to as the quotGreat Migrationquot of Puritans it is going to be lead by a wealthy man by the name ofjohn Winthrop John Winthrop is also going to be the governor in charge of the colony This great migration lasts for 10 years 1630516405 nearly 14000 colonists came into New England In the 16005 New England is not the top choice for people if they want to come to the new world the vast majority of people go to the Chesapeake you cannot be from the lower sort and must be a model citizen Distinct Differences in the Colonies Chesapeake Jamestown New England PlymouthBoston 0 Young single men 0 Families 0 No skills FarmersArtisans skills 0 Poor 0 Some wealth Swampland Much colder climate 0 Hothumid climate 0 Fast moving rivers Sick Population 0 Healthy population 0 High Mortality Long life expectancy 4 males for every 1 female 0 3 males for every 2 females 0 Life Expectations 45 years 3 Between 3 Between 39 120k 39mm39grants 0 21k immigrants 393 1700 PopUIat39on 393 1700 Population 85k people 0 91k people The vast majority of colonists in New England are farmers the labor force is their family They produce rye wheat and barely there are no cash crops There are also many domestic animals like cows pigs sheep goats New England is just like Old England for the exception of a new crop like corn The colonists in New England all seek to achieve a common goal of independency competency there are two parts to this concept lndependency means that no matter what you do you are independent you do not work or depend on somebody else for your livelihood Competency means that whatever you do you make enough money to take care of your family but you also make enough money to pass that standard of living down to your children The economy gets a bit complicated after 1640 there are no new colonists who need help or care After 1640 the economy must adapt in order to make money The colonists are going to get involved in shing but most importantly shipping this trade network is going to become very very elaborate They are going to be a great trading enterprise all over the Atlantic Ocean Example of how it works The colonists decide to ll up their ships with crops like wheat and domestic animals like pigs they take a trip to Jamestown and dump all their goods there They ll up their ship full of tobacco and take it back to England In England they empty their boats and take colonists to the Chesapeake They ll up their boats with tobacco and bring it back to New England They ll up their ship with some goods again and go to the Caribbean they empty their boat and ll it up with sugar They turn the sugar into rum They dump off the sugar in England and load up the boat with gold and guns They take the gold and guns to Africa They unload the gold and guns there and ll the boat up with humans and go to the Caribbean they serve as a workforce back in the Caribbean This network of trade is named the quotcarrying trade Northern Indians amp Colonists 392 Pequot War 3 Praying Towns 3 Metacom s War The Puritans communities were little Bible Commonwealths no matter who is in your community every body has to have that religion in mind They were very very strict in their communities going to church on Sundays was a requirement People were not allowed to be lazy everybody had to be working hard There were rules in the community that everyone had to maintain community members spy on each other and report when the people aren t doing what they re supposed to do The entire community has a relationship or quotcontractquot with god If everyone is doing what they re supposed to be doing god is going to be happy with you good crops good weather good health obedient children Puritans view these signs that God is pleased with you Whenever bad things happen Puritans believe that it is a sign that God is angry with you Puritans are very serious about monitoring the community s behavior they are also very serious about cracking down on dissenters Those religious dissenters either need to exit the colony or could be killed if they refused to leave It is a very intolerant colony Just like in the Chesapeake there are thousands of Indians living in New England Puritans had some reasons that involved Native Americans for coming over to New England they wanted to convert Native Americans to Christianity because they were not practicing the quotcorrectquot religion Europeans had a belief that they were superior and that lndians wanted their help w culture amp religion In the Chesapeake there is a large confederacy of allied Indian Tribes in New England there are many different Native Americans groups and they are all independent New England Indians Massachusett Narrangansett Mohegan Pequot Wampanoag They each have their own war civil and religious leaders Sometimes these Native communities trade with one another and sometimes they are personal friends Sometimes they are not so friendly and may compete with each other In Native American culture warfare is an every day part of life European and Native American warfare differ in many ways Native American Warfare Constant always prepared for warfare Never about extermination 0 Didn t ght over land Relatively few causalities Goal is to humiliate the enemy Target women and children 0 Most interested in acquiring live captives amp assimilateadopt them into their communities to replenish the population This warfare escalates after contact with colonists more and more Indians are dying from new diseases The Indians don t see the colonists as a threat and want to become friends they view the Europeans as a bene t They seek to become trade partners they want metal tools domesticated animals clothing alcohol When Puritans rst came over there was plenty of land Problems and tensions begin to escalate as the 16305 progress As more and more Puritans moved over they needed land since they were farmers The greatest tension focuses on Southern New England the native group operating this part are the Pequots Tension between Europeans and the Pequots are going to increase in the 16305 By 1637 those tensions have reached a breaking point the English keep moving in and demand land the Pequot do not want to give it up In 1637 the English decide to declare war on the Pequots principally because they want the land The problem for the English is that they cannot nd the Pequot communities The English decide that the only way they can carry out this war is if they have Indian allies they are able to gain two Indian allies the Narrangansetts and the Mohegans The Narrangansetts and Mohegans decided to help because they believed they could gain some captives and land With Indian assistance in May of 1637 the colonists attack the Pequots At this time most warriors are out hunting food there are about 400 peoples and most people in the communities are women children and old people The attack comes before dawn the English and their allies send arrows that have re on them over the defensive fence By the end of the day there were only 5 survivors The Puritans are very pleased with themselves and believe that God is happy of their achievement The Native Americans are disappointed because their goal is to humiliate enemies not exterminate them the Indians are horri ed by this style of warfare As a result of this opening wave the English are forced to change their approach slightly in order to appease their Native American allies The war lasted for about a year by the end of 1638 the Pequot had suffered some signi cant losses Before the war began their total population was around 3000 people when the war is over the Pequots had suffered 1500 deaths Half of their population at out died in the war and another 1500 Pequots were either assimilated into the NarrangansettsMohegans or sold into slavery in the Caribbean The Pequot nation no longer existed it was exterminated Puritans were criticized heavily for their violence Puritans decided to put more emphasis on bringing Christianity to Native Americans The need for converting Native Americans to Christianity and the need for land comes together to form praying towns A praying town is a speci c isolated patrolled community it is a place where Native Americans would be relocated for religious purposes It is like a modern reservation for Indians It is a special piece of land reserved for Indians the Native Americans have to demonstrate that they are converting to Christianity going to church give up their land change your name pray dress like the English baptism understand the bible speak and act like the English For a lot of Native groups it is a way for them to retain their land In those praying towns their behavior is monitored by the English Praying town Indians always have to provedemonstrate their loyalty to the English they have to serve as colonial informants and spy on other Indian communities they need to spy on Indians who are not in the praying town The English do not focus on developing these praying towns until after the Pequot extermination
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