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by: Bridget House

chem120studyguide.pdf CHEM 120 001

Bridget House
GPA 3.48
General Chemistry
Deborah Weigand

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All notes from lectures and textbook included, very thorough! Enjoy
General Chemistry
Deborah Weigand
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget House on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 120 001 at University of Washington taught by Deborah Weigand in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 10/08/15
Chemistry 120 Study Guide for Exam 1 Lecture and Reading notes has mass and occupies space waves not matter Types of energy 1 the transfer of energy between two objects due to a temperature gradient Associated with the motion of particles and is measured in Ioules or Calories also called 2 a force that acts over a given distance to move an object 3 PE the energy an object has depending on the placement in a field of force gravity PE mass acceleration height 4 KE the energy an object has due to its motion KE 12 mass velocity 5 Total energy is equal to KEPE Molecular kinetic energy how molecules move motion through space motion about the center of mass of the molecule motion directed by through chemical bounds molecules are subject to more forces than just gravity There is energy stored within chemical bounds which are electrostatic charges on Electron and Protons Observed or measured without effecting the identity of the substance physical state boiling and freezing point shape color density these properties describe the ability of a substance to change into a new substances resistance combustion oxidation Physical change vs Chemical change During physical change composition of molecules stays the same one or more physical property changes During chemical change composition of molecules changes Chemical changes often occur alongside physical changes States of matter definite shape and volume definite volume adopts the same shape as the container its in takes the same shape and volume as the container its in Changes of state Liquid to gas Gas to liquid Liquid to solid Solid to liquid Solid to gas Gas to solid 1 2 3 10 temperature 140 12 gas 1 I boiling quotCl JI liquid melting solid 4 i heat absorbed Leveling off areas represent the change in state even though the heat is still being added the temperature does not increase because all the energy goes to changing the state The ratio of the mass of the substance divided by its volume D mV Dependent upon the temperature because substances expand with heat Mass grams Volume mL or cmquot3 Density gmL or gcmquot3 Constant for a substance at a specific temperature Density depends upon the chemical composition and the phase Classifications of matter broad classes composed of the same type of molecule is a form of matter that has a constant and definite composition cannot be separated by physical means impure physical combination of two or more pure substances the pure substance retain their original identities 1 contains visually different parts or phases that each have their own properties contains only one phase and the properties of each substance are uniform pure despite its purity it can yield two or more substances when chemically broken down Separation techniques components in a mixture still retain individual properties and those properties can be used to separate the substances from one another the more similar the components the harder it is to separate them Compounds 1 Ionic compounds 2 Molecules 2 Representing Elements and Compounds Chemical models Chemical symbols Example H Hydrogen N Nitrogen Chemical Formulas Example H20 water Compound terminology 2 atoms Example 02 H2 N2 3 atoms Example H20 all the same element Example 02 more than one type of element 90 Example H20 HF Temperature Scales Metric system Boiling point 100 degrees body temp 37 degrees freezing point 0 degrees absolute zero 2 73 degrees Absolute scale no degree symbol used Boiling point 373 body temperature 310 freezing point 273 absolute zero 0 English system Boiling point 212 degrees body temperature 982 degrees freezing temperature 32 degrees absolute zero 460 degrees Metric Units the base unit for length the base unit for mass the base unit for volume 1 liter the volume of a cube with 10 cm edges 1 L 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm 1000 cmquot31000 cmquot3 1000 mL problem solving method with units 1 Identify known quantity and desired units 2 Multiply given quantity by one or more conversion factors so that known units cancel out leaving you with desired units 3 Do the math the digits in a measurement known with certainty one estimated digit Nonzero digits always significant The digit Zero may or may not be significant depending on position and whether or not they indicate a measured value Leading zeros are never significant confined zeros are always significant trailing zeros are significant onli if the number has a shown decimal point nano 10quot9 micro 10quot6 milli 10quot3 centi10quot2 deci 10quot1 kilo 10quot3 Mega 10quot6 Giga 10quot9 the smallest unit of an element that still retains the properties of that element size 10quot10 m or 1 Angstrom Small dense and positively charged center of atom protons and neutrons live in nucleus more than 999 of the mass of an atom size 10quot15 m or 1 femtometer where the electrons are likely to be found any subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom has a positive charge mass is 1007 amu this is the chemical identity of the atom and the atomic number has a negative charge mass is 000055 amu this is the ionic number of the atom and represents whether it carries a charge has no charge mass is 1008 amu this is the isotopic characteristic of the atom which represents whether it is stable Z the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom A the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom an average of the atomic masses of the most common isotopes of the atom these are weighted averages that are related to the atomic mass unit amu is a unit of measure for subatomic particles that is defined as 12 the mass of a Carbon12 atom atoms of the same element that differ in mass same number of protons different number of neutrons A mass spectrometer gives you the mass of the most abundant isotope Example 12quot C 13quotC 14AC 1 The atom is the smallest possible unit that still contains the unique identity of an element 2 Atoms of one element can be converted into atoms of another element through a chemical reaction nuclear reactions 3 All atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons 4 Compound of elements are formed by chemical combinations of two or more elements in specific ratios elements arranged in order of increasing atomic number elements with similar chemical properties occur at periodic intervals Periodic organization 1 horizontal row of elements 2 vertical column of elements 3 general name for elements in Group IA of the table react with water 4 name for elements in Group IIA soft shiny metals that react moderately with water Reactive elements these are gases at room temperature Unreactive elements gases at room temperature have thermal and electric conductivity properties of luster and malleability have the absence of properties that metals have gt1 reactions in which changes occur to specifically the nucleus of an atom not ordinary chemical reactions Differ from normal chemical reactions because normal ones deal with the rearrangement of electrons but nuclear reactions deal with the changes in nucleus used to describe atoms of different elements can be stable or unstable mion spontaneously emitted from an unstable nucleus nuclide that has an unstable nucleus which is spontaneously emitting radiation Stable vs Unstable 1 Correlation between nuclear stability and the total number of nucleons found in the nucleus Unstable nuclei have 84 or more protons 2 Correlation between nuclear stability and neutron to proton ratio in the nucleus Number of neutrons increases with the number of protons in a stable nucleus because the neutrons are necessary to lower the repulsion forces when protons are added Process whereby a radionuclide is transformed into another element nuclide as a result of the emission of radiation from its nucleus 1 nuclide that undergoes decay in a radioactive decay rocess 2 Nuclide that is produced in a radioactive decay rocess h decay process where alpha particles emitted from an unstable nucleus always results in the formation of different elements nuclide The product nucleus s atomic number is 2 less than the original and the mass number is 4 less Beta particle is emitted from the unstable nucleus and produces the nuclide of a different element The mass number stays the same and the atomic number increases by 1 The neutron in the nucleus transforms into a proton and the beta particle is emitted Beta particle is the same thing as a Helium nucleus A form of emission that is incredibly high energy and not considered a particle because it has no mass or charge Gamma ray emission is always accompanied by either or both Alpha and Beta particle emission equation in which the chemical symbols in the equation represent atomic nuclei rather than atoms these differ from normal chemical equations 1 Symbols in nuclear equations stand for nuclei rather than atoms and the number of electrons is not used 2 The mass number and atomic number are always included 3 The elemental symbols on both sides of the equation are usually not the same a nuclear equation that the sum of the subscripts on both sides of equation are equal and the sum of the subscripts are equal on both sides


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