Week Four: The Middle Colonies
Week Four: The Middle Colonies HIST 1376
Popular in The United States To 1877
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Yee on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1376 at University of Houston taught by Kelly Y Hopkins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see The United States To 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
New Netherland amp New York 2 Henry Hudson 392 Iroquois ConfederacyFive Nations 3 Navigation Acts 1651 1660 1663 393 Covenant Chain 2 Metacom s War 16751676 The English are so preoccupied they don t pay attention to the Middle Colonies This opens the door for other Europeans to establish themselves in America Middle Colony Advantages 0 Good mild climate not as hot as the Chesapeake but not as cold as New England 0 Not as swampy as the Chesapeake and not as rocky as New England 0 Fabulous agricultural potential no cash crops but all kinds of other agricultural produce wheat 0 Healthy climate healthy population 0 Extensive river systems 3 Important River Systems 1 Susquehanna River empties into Chesapeake Bay 2 Delaware mouth at Philadelphia 3 Hudson mouth at New York City Rivers are good for trade amp easy transport of goods Fresh drinking water amp irrigation for crops Defense Fishing The English do not move in despite all these advantages Early in the 16005 the Dutch move in here to this region In 1609 Henry Hudson sails on behalf of the Dutch amp reaches the mouth of one of these rivers He ascended that river all the way up to presentday Albany he named the river after himself Hudson and his crew encounter a group of Native Americans going by the name of quot the Five Nationsquot They are also known as the Iroquois Confederacy It is a group of 5 Indian groups allied together in one nation There are lots of things Indians want to get their hands on metal tools horses weapons etc Europeans want one item in exchange for all of these items They want the skinfur of dead animals This ensues a fur trade Europeans provide manufactured goods Indians bring furs The beaver are the animals that Europeans want the most The furs are turned into felt and used in hats which were a fashion statement at the time This trade is incredibly bene cial for both sides for the Dutch it is incredibly pro table This trade is also seasonal it39s not permanent the Dutch show up every Spring to trade for the beaver skins By 1614 the Dutch are making so much money at this fur trade that they decide to establish a permanent presence the Dutch establish a trading post at Fort Orange 1614 The Dutch want to protect all of that wealth coming out of Fort Orange in their colony ofNew Netherland In 1625 they decide to establish a second colonial colonytown at the mouth of the Hudson river they establish New Amsterdam They now have two towns in their colony Fort Orange and New Amsterdam The two colonial towns develop very differently They have their own distinct features and they also develop different relationships with Indians Fort Orange New Amsterdam 0 After a decade there are 50 people Dutch families 0 0 Half are soldiers half are fur o Farming amp agricultural traders they are all men 0 They DGGd land and they DGGd it o The population is small and it s not from the Indians confrontational expanding relationship 0 Everyone is getting what they want 0 Growing population increasing 0 Native Americans and colonists are tensions getting along very well 0 Heavy dependence on shipping Both approaches have no place for the Indians it actually depends on getting rid of them because they need the land Most of the money in New Netherland comes from shipping they have the nest harbor on the Atlantic Coast In New Amsterdam Dutch colonists are making money the same way as Puritans in New England international Atlantic world shipping The English think that the Dutch here in New Netherland ship goods for lower rates This colony is going to be a competitor with the English over in England the Dutch is making a lot of money This becomes more and more troubling to England they decide to pass legislation to put the Dutch out of business In early 1651 the English pass legislation known as the quotNavigation Actsquot it is strengthened in 1660 and again in 1663 there are many parts but the main goal is to bankrupt the Dutch 1 All English products must be carried or transported on an English shi p To be an English ship you must have an English captain To be an English ship 75 of your crew must be English The ship also must be built in an English city New England is going to start building ships this creates more jobs in the colony they will need to hire shipbuilders and sailors causing job secur y 2 Certain items especially cash crops must rst go to England before they can go anywhere else The King wants to tax the items rst to generate revenue 3 Before any item can go to the colony it must rst go to England to be taxed Despite strengthening the Navigation Acts it still failed ultimately to get rid of Dutch competition in the colonies The English decide that if they cannot get rid of the Dutch through legislation they will get rid of them through military conquest In 1664 the English are going to send an invading force to New Netherland their invading force consists of 3 ships each with about 100 men When they get to New Netherland they found that the Dutch population was not interested in ghting they asked quotif we surrender without ghting will you not shoot usquot the English were able to conquer the entire colony without a single ght The colony becomes known as the quot Colony of New Yorkquot Fort Orange becomes quotAlbanyquot and New Amsterdam becomes quotNew York later New York City When the English take over they also take over the Fur Trade outpost far up the Hudson River it is part of the economic pro ts that the English also want The relationship with the Iroquois is going to become more elaborate than just an economic relationship The English are going to develop an elaborate alliance with the Iroquois Confederacy this will be known as the quotCovenant Chainquot it is an intercultural alliance between the English colony of New York and the Iroquois Confederacy The Iroquois are going to continue providing furs and the English are going to keep providing manufactured goods there is also a military alliance component Ex If you come under attack we the Iroquois will come to your aid and vice versa There is also a diplomatic component before the New Yorkers can engage with other Indian groups tradecommunicateattack they go to the Iroquois rst they will help them solve the problem amp vice versa Europeans turn to Indians Iroquois to be their mercenaries and enforces they ask them for help in attacking another Indian group in exchange for moneygoods Penn s Woods 3 William Penn 3 Quakers 393 Lenni Lenape 392 Metacom s War 16751676 Pennsylvania was granted to an individual a man by the name of William Penn He was a Quaker Quakers were a persecuted religious sect in England and were pacifists they went farther than Puritans in the criticisms of their church For Quakers they completely did not believe in paid intermediaries no paid bishops or ministers Instead Quakers believed that every individual could cultivate their own relationship with God Quakers believe in spiritual equality everyone is a spiritual poor or rich women or men white or black no one is superior than the other Quakers referred to themselves as the quotfriends of Godquot For the friends they believed in equality disliked aunting wealth and often dressed in very plain clothing Most of the friends are members of the middle sort many of them are farmers and artisans William Penn is a very contradictory Quaker he came from an incredibly wealth family In addition his family and his wealth entitled him to an excellent education William Penn received this enormous tract of land from the King they are friends his family connections also enable him to many political connections Penn does aunt his wealth but also uses what he has to help other Quakers For example William Penn uses his education to write pamphlets on behalf of the Quakers he is also going to use his wealth to help Quakers who have been thrown in jail Most importantly Penn uses his connections to the King to help alleviate the persecution for Quakers once he gets this enormous tract of land he is going to open up that land for persecuted people The tract of land was originally called Penn s Woods there are two important river systems cutting through his colony There is fabulous agricultural potential The climate is warmer than in New York All these factors will also combine for a healthy population The colony of Pennsylvania is going to be started very late in the century he does not get the grant until 1680 Pennsylvania is going to avoid all those early troubles of starting a colony and be off to a very great start The rst shipment of colonists arrives in 1682 for a total of approximately 2000 colonists The second shipment comes in 1683 with another 2000 colonists the vast majority of them are families and people from the middle sort All of these arrivals come into the main port town at Philadelphia the city of brotherly love By 1686 the population is about 8000 people by 1690 there are 11000 and by 1700 their population is approximately 18000 colonists In the middle colonies area of Pennsylvania the main lndian group are the Lenni Lenape the English call them the Delaware By 1680 the Lenni Lenape population is about 5000 people This re ects a Native population that has already been decimated by disease and attacks by other Indian groups Their main concern is the Five Nations to the North and the Lenni Lenape desperately need help protecting their villages William Penn engaged in a lot of diplomacy with the Native Americans he believed the Indians were the rightful owners of the land Instead ofjust taking the land he offered things in exchange for it A unique relationship develops with the Indians it is mutually bene cial for both sides Population Comparisons New EnglandIndians Virginia Colonistslndians 1620 10225000 1607 10424000 1630 150020000 1616 35010000 1660 3300015000 1650 130003000 1670 5200012000 1660 25000 colonistsnot many 1700 910005000 left any surviving Indians are living on reservations o 1700 85000 colonists 00000 0000 In New England Puritans nally decided to focus on religious conversion for Indians one way they did that was forcing Indians into praying towns They had to prove their loyalty by changing names praying dressing like the English and spying on other Indians etc The fact that praying town Indians have to spy on other Indians leads to an incredibly violent con ict in New England it is known as quotMetacom s Warquot The English also referred it to as quotKing Phillip s Warquot This Indian leader was a Christian Indian his English name was Phillip and his Indian name was Metacom This war began in spring of 1675 when several Wampanoag Indians were executed because they killed a praying town informant The execution of these Indians sparks a massive Indian uprising many of their friends decided to get revenge In response to the execution lots of young Wampanoag men begin to attack colonial settlements It quickly spread across New England each time they succeeded it inspired more Indians to rise When these Indians attacked colonists they attacked everything they killed men women children domesticated animals and burned everything These Indian rebels were incredibly successful throughout 1675 While King Phillip gets the blame this is not an isolated event Indians everywhere are angry By 1676 this tide begins to turn their weapons break and they start to run out of ammunition the only trade partners are the English they are no longer able to continue the ght Another factor is that the English are enlisting the assistance of other Indian groups The English are successfully enlisting and paying other Indian groups to go and attack the rebels One of the most powerful groups of Indians are the Iroquois Confederacy This turns into a civil war among Native Americans in New England By the summer of 1676 Metacom39s war is of cially over any surviving Indians in New England are going to be sold as slaves or relegated to reservations This marks the end of Indian Resistance By 1700 in New England there are nearly 100000 people in New England and 100000 in Virginia In Pennsylvania the population is barely 20000 In Pennsylvania there is a low colonial and native population that gives everyone a lot of land to use There is no pressure on Indians to give up land Pennsylvania develops very differently from other places Pennsylvania s colonists treat the Indians very nicely The word spreads everywhere to the North and South quotcome to England if you re a persecuted Nativequot many Natives want to move to Pennsylvania for fairer treatment For a while colonists and Indians get along well
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