Week Six: Eighteenth-Century World
Week Six: Eighteenth-Century World HIST 1376
Popular in The United States To 1877
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Yee on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1376 at University of Houston taught by Kelly Y Hopkins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see The United States To 1877 in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
British Colonies in an Atlantic World 339 Rice and Indigo 0 Georgia oz Middle Passage z Stono Rebellion Carolina colonists can t grow sugar and they don t want to grow tobacco Eventually they discover two cash crops that grow incredibly well in the hot humid and swampy area rice and indigo Rice Exports Indigo Exports 1700 400K lbs 1750 63K lbs 1740 43M lbs 1760 500K lbs The crops are very labor intensive They demand labor nearly year round Many people are going to die in the heat and humidity so they constantly need more laborers Carolina39s Slave Population Slaves of Total Population 1670516805 1000 25 of population 0 1710 4100 o 50 rst colony with black majority o 1730 20K 0 Slaves outnumber whites 41 Colonial Prosperity 0 New England Shipping fur trade corn domesticated animals 0 Chesapeake Tobacco 0 Middle Colonies fur trade shipping great agricultural potential 0 Lower Colonies Rice and Indigo All the colonies are facing Eastward looking across the Atlantic Ocean That is how they are making money shipping things across Many people see it as a bridge for economic prosperity trade relationships with the mother country None of the colonies are looking to the West which consists of mountains and Indians All the colonial regions for the most part enjoy varying degrees of prosperity As a free colonist living in the new world they have higher standards of living than their Indian counterparts Some regions are more wealthy than others Colonial prosperity ranking from lowest highest 0 New England Long cold winters lower agricultural output free labor 0 Middle Colonies place of free labor everybody enjoys the pro ts no cash crops 0 Chesapeake have a cash crop and free unpaid workforce planters can enjoy pro ts 0 Lower Colonies unpaid workforce from day one two cash crops The lower colonies are making so much wealth that England wants to protect it They want to protect that wealth from the Spanish down in Florida The best way they came up with was to carve out a separate space and create a buffer colony named Georgia in honor of the king Beginning in 1733 the rst colonists are going to settle in Georgia In settling Georgia England is going to revise the policy of sending over the lower sort Colonists in Georgia are going to be the undesirables the criminals Georgia is a whiteonly colony there will be no blacks and no slaves The Spanish down in Florida have a clearly stated policy quotif a slave could run away and make it into Florida they would receive freedomquot Georgia now has a couple of goals Protect the wealth in Carolina and create a blockade so slaves can39t make their way to Spanish Florida Georgia Population Slave Population White Population 1733151 0 slaves slaves prohibited 17331751 fewer than 3K 1752 600 slaves 1752 3K whites 1775 15K slaves 1775 18K whites With the unban of slavery the population rises Georgia will develop as a mirror colony as the Carolinas growing rice and indigo and demanding slave labor As the 17005 progress there is going to be a dramatic increase in the number of ships coming across the Atlantic Ocean Ships are going to be used to transports colonists goods and slaves During the 17005 there is going to be a signi cant shift in the type of people coming into the colonists 17th amp 18th Century Emigrants White English African Slaves 16071700 350K 16191700 10K 17001775 80K signi cant drop 50K 17001775 350K were convicts very little incentive for people to go over For the vast majority of the Africans their enslavement began in Africa They were captured in Africa 25 of Africans died in the initial enslavement of slavery The Great Awakening 0 Middle Passage 39339 Stono Rebellion German Redemptioners Jonathan Edwards George White eld o o o 0 0 09 Many people from Africa were thrown onto ships against their will and shipped to places like Brazil West Indies etc where they were auctioned off The middle passage is a trip that takes several weeks to several months depending on the weather ocean currents your destination etc Ships are crammed with human cargo slave traders want to cram as many people as possible The mortality rates on the boats are 25 Africans must deal with physical emotional and psychological pain The mortality rates even raised in the 170018005 The initial enslavement is very traumatic being separated from families being forced into new land and being forced to do things they didn t know how to do Many of the Africans are going to be ooding into the Carolinas It is very labor intensive and the environment is unhealthy Africans must nd ways to survive or change this horri c expe ence They could survive by 0 Resisting overtly Uprisings once in a while Owners always fearful of slave uprisings 0 One of the most violent uprisings occurred in South Carolina in 1739 It is known as the Stono Rebellion One morning a group of slaves entered a shop along the Stono Rebellion They killed the two white shopkeepers decapitated them and stole all the weapons in the store The goal of this group was to take their weapons go from plantation to plantation commit violence against the white slave holders bring more slaves into the uprising and then march South towards Florida to freedom The rebellion is successful By night their numbers have grown to 100 slaves involved in the rebellion Throughout the day they have burned 7 plantations and killed 20 whites Once whites realize something is going on they quickly organize and hunt down anyone involved in the uprising There is a massive manhunt Whites track down the rebels by the next day Most of the rebels surrendered Accepting that surrender the Whites then decided to decapitate nearly 80 of the rebels They left the decapitated roads along the roadside a display and example for every African in the area The rebellion starts off successfully for the Africans but was suppressed very quickly by the Whites Slaves realize this kind of resistance is not going to work Resisting covertly arson poison break tools working more slowly than expected Africans are the main group represented in the 18th century emigration The other represented the European groups Scots and the ScotchIrish The majority of them are going to go to Pennsylvania and New York The Germans are also going to be a highly represented group the vast majority of them are going to Pennsylvania Scots and ScotchIrish Germans 17001775 150K 17001775 100k Many of the Germans did not have a lot of money they showed up as a type of indentured servant These Germans were known as German Redemptioners basically an indentured servant who is German Of all of the unfree people to arrive in the colonies Germans had the best experience out of all these groups German Redemptioners served 1 a shorter contract usually only four years Germans also 2 arrived as intact families and served the contracts as intact families Germans were given a 3 twoweek grace period during that twoweek period if you can nd friends or family already in the colony they can pick up your contract and you don t need to work at all It is a very enticing system for Germans Pennsylvania Population 1700 18K emigrants healthy environment and less Native lndian con icts 1750 120K Pennsylvania is going to have a very diverse population Quaker 25 of the population ScotchIrish 25 of the population Germans 40 of the population The colonies are becoming more distinct or different from the mother countries in the form of religion In the colonies during the 17005 there is going to be a massive wave of religious revivalism not seen in Europe collectively known as the GreatAwakening This wave of religious revivalism sparks up in some areas of the colonies dies out and moves to another spot of the colonies It is not a permanent long term revival lt develops as a result of what professionally trained ministers see as religious apathy people are sleeping in churches etc The new style of preacher is known as an quotevangelical preacherquot they are not professionally trained do nut on a speci c denomination do not follow a script and has a very energetic and emotional style of preachingjonathan Edwards begins having success in his evangelical preaching in the 17305 When he preached he essentially yelled and screamed at the congregation telling them they are sinners quotsinners in the hand of an angry godquot Edwards is going to tell the congregation they are going to hell he creates images of burning hell and juxtaposes them with the paradise in heaven The people are willing to listen to any suggestions Edwards has and change their lives around In the mid 1730s he writes a pamphlet quotHow to Convert a Communityquot which includes a 4 step process now other evangelical preachers can copy Edwards The 4 steps of the process 0 Step 1 good deeds will not get you into heaven 0 Step 2 realize that your life is utterly worthless without life in it 0 Step 3 reach rock bottom will never experience divine intervention 0 Step 4 will feel the saving grace in their lives rebirth In the late 17305 George White eld experiences great success Wherever he went thousands and thousands of people came to hear him preach He enjoyed tremendous success because 1 he is a very charismatic preacher 2 he keeps the message simple all he does is focus on the individual conversion experience He is going to help grow these isolated revivals into a more widespread awakening particularly in the North Despite the fact that the awakenings are short lived there are long lasting effects of the legacy LongLasting Legacies o A whole new array of denominations new churches all legitimate Beginning of the separations of church and state 0 Religious racial ethnic diversity is going to become the norm 0 Development of many new colleges and universities Sense of self worth in every day political activities