PSC 142 Week 3 Lecture Notes (October 6, October 8, Reading Notes)
PSC 142 Week 3 Lecture Notes (October 6, October 8, Reading Notes) PSC 142
Popular in Social and Personality Development
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Denise Kaira Marquez on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 142 at University of California - Davis taught by Anne Dunlea in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see Social and Personality Development in Psychlogy at University of California - Davis.
Reviews for PSC 142 Week 3 Lecture Notes (October 6, October 8, Reading Notes)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/08/15
PSC 142 Lecture Outline Oct 6 Oct 8 October 6 Attachment 1 What is attachment It s a close emotional bond that connects one person to another Shaffer text defines it as reciprocal as a mutual affection and desire to maintain proximity That is not the consensus other scholars see attachment as not necessarily reciprocal In developmental theory healthy attachment is generally viewed a mutual I will further suggest that secure attachment helps support development lifelong 2 The Mother Parent to child bond Parental feelings for a helpless demanding neonate There is a difference between a bond amp attachment Oxytocin loving feeligns and skin to skin contact after birth Parents have feelings of wanting to take care of the baby One it is a chemical thing oxytocin amp skintoskin contact Oxytocin is a neuropeptide a hormonal shift that is part of the birthing process Oxytocin is the loving feelings that come from skintoskin contact Marshall Klaus amp Iohn Kennel 1976 revolutionize western hospital birth protocols Based on high risks pairs infant in NICU etc Counter evidence form adoptions The role of physical contact We ll return to this Thursday 3 Observations of infants and young children reared in difficult circumstances WW2 refugee camps without parents Hospitalized children Romanian orphans lohn Bowlby born into upper middle class home in London in 1907 Reared by a Nanny saw mother only brie y she like others of her social group believed giving children affection and attention would spoil them Sent To Boarding school at age 7 Trained in psychoanalysis but also knew about biology developmental psychology ethology etc Secure base Bowlby suggested that as a result of biologically programmed responses parents amp infant develop mutual attachment Cupie doll infant smiling amp engaging M feeding responding to caring for Parent as secure base form which child can expore env but return for safety when gets overwhelmed etc When parents had extended hospitalization they were clearly highly stressed from it Toddler s reaction to being stressfully separated from Mother extended hospitalization Bowlby s study 1 Protest phase trying to regain Mother by crying asking for her etc 2 despair phase loose hope may become apathetic 3 detachment phase child seems to be revered and engages again with toys and others but cool or indifferent to mother when reunited The Development of Attachment Features of being Attached Children are typically attached to a regular caregiver by 1 year They go to this person if hungry fearful hurt or upset They greet the person happily if the two have been separated They often experience some separation distress if caregiver leaves They express grief or morning if the caregiver is gone for more than about a week Theories of Attachment A Psychoanalytic Freud oral gratification infant becomes attached to breast then extends to mother invalid lots of evidence that infants become attached to those who do not feed them Erikson Feeding involved but mother s general responsiveness to the child s needs is more important and creates the basis for the resolution of the first con ict of dev in his theory trustmistrust Life long process Con ict trust mistrust E Learning Theories Initial view was that infants would become attached to the caregiver who feeds them and satisfies their needs Wanting mother becomes a learned drivequot because M is paired with relief of hunger Harlow s famous monkey experiment What is the experiment What happened C Ethology Bowlby s work see above D Cognitive development theory Infant s ability to differentiate btw familiar and unfamiliar people Infant s awareness that person continues to exist even when out of perceptual range object permanence and stranger anxiety Object permanence A challenge to that view Baillargeon amp others who demonstrated object knowledge and inferred object perm in infants from about 3 12 months Typical Sequence of Phases in the Infant s Becoming Attached Phase Age Description Preattachment O 2 months Comfortable with most people responds indiscriminately in social situations Early development of 2 7 months Recognizes familiar attachment people greets amp engages with them Attachment 7 24 months Protests when separated cautious or wary of strangers intentional social interactions and communication Goalcorrected partnership 24 months on Child begins to understand needs of others and relationship becomes more reciprocal This is what most parents and observers see or experience The Nature and Quality of Attachments The hallmark study Ainsworth s classification of attachment types attachment security based on the strange situationquot paradigm see Tale 51 in text for description of event sequence Student of Bowlby s Assessing attachment in natural situations time consuming and difficult to evaluate Strange situation is a laboratory based paradigm that assesses infant s ability to use mother as a secure base After M amp Infant enter an unfamiliar laboratory playroom M brie y leaves the baby in the room first with a stranger and then alone Three patterns of infant behavior observed subjects 1 year old 1 Secure Child explores room while with mother but becomes upset when M leaves Seeks physical contact proximity and interaction when M returns is easily soothed by parent and returns to playing and exploring the room Engages with parents showing her things amp so on 6065 OCTOBER 8th 2 InsecureAvoidant Show little distress when M leaves Actively avoids M on her returnturns away form M and ignores M when she tries to get infant s attention on return remains occupied with the toys 20 3 Insecure Resistant or Ambivalent Stay close to M when with her often do not explore toys Becomes very distressed when M leaves Seem ambivalent or give mixed signals when M returns may remain near M but then become angry or come near M and then resist M s attempts to comfort or interact Very wary of strangers even when M is present 10 Recently about 2000 a forth classification made 4 Insecuredisorganized Very distressed by the Strange Situation They show signs of being quotdisorganizedquot in their emotional responses for ex crying for the parent at the door then running away when M enters approaching M with head down avoiding eye gaze sometimes seem to freeze or become disoriented 5 maybe more The same kinds of patterns are shown in children 3 6 years old The task is modified by providing different kinds of toys and having Mother leave for a longer period oftime Comments on the Taxonomy Fairly consistent patterns over several decades of testing Recent research suggests the distinct classifications are more of a continuum with 2 dimensions Proximityseeking versus proximity avoidance the degree to which child s attachment is organized around proximity Anger amp resistance amount of overt con ict and anger expressed toward caregiver Other measures Several scales have been introduced that rely on subjective measures Parents sort 90 cards with descriptions of how they believe their child behaves in various settings This is the attachment Q test This is the Attachment Qset Example cards Secure Insecure Child readily shares with M or lets her Child refuses to share with M hold things if she asks to When child is upset or hurt mother is When upset or hurt accepts help from the only one he wants to comfort him adults other than M Child keeps track of M s location as plays Child doesn t keep track of M Neurological Correlations of Attachment EEG activity in the prefrontal cortex has been recorded in a variety of strange situation and similar scenarios Infants who exhibit forms of insecure attachment have less activity on the left side of the PFC and more activity on the right side of PFC Dawson et al 2001 Significance Neuroscience research indicates that the left prefrontal cortex is specialized for the expression of positive approach emotions such as joy amp social interest whereas the left PFC is associated with negative withdrawal emotions such as distress and fear Studies with adult spouse pairs show similar patterns in fMRI studies It appears that attachment security is re ected in brain activity in the left and right PFC Note that this does not allow us to infer cause or direction of the in uence between brain and behavior Does Parental input in uence attachment Caregiving Hypothesis The security of attachment is in uenced by the quality of the caregiver s input by the quality of the care the infant receives Secure infants have sensitive responsive caregivers Attunement mothers who are sensitive to their baby s signal who respond but do not lead or overwhelm who sensitively withdraw when infant disengages parents who can view things from their child s perspective and adjust responses to child s needs Specifically Sensitive to baby s signals and interpret them accurately Respond to baby s state and mood and did not interrupt baby s activities Accept the baby rather than being irritated or frustrated Available were alert to baby and did not ignore him or put off attending to him comment going to crying babies How might less effective parental responses affect a baby Una ectionate and inconsistent caregiving parent sometimes responds and sometimes does not respond to needs not affectionate or irregularly affectionate 9 insecure ambivalent These children are preoccupied with whether or not M is available in the strange situation and they don t know whether to expect kindness or being ignored comment on the power of variable schedule reinforcement Neglectful or abusive caregiving 9 insecure disorganized attachment patterns Over 80 of infants and children who are abused show this pattern This pattern is also seen in children or mothers who are depressed Do Infant characteristics in uence attachment Some infants are irritable or have quotdifficultquot temperaments We ll discuss this next week For example infants who have chronic severe colic Some studies indicate these infants are more likely to develop insecure forms of attachment Other studies indicate that parents who are very sensitive or who have had support or training in how to manage distressed infants over come this Generally studies show that if parents have support from family and friends their infants are no more likely that typical to develop insecure attachments Cultural Differences in Patterns of Attachment The strange situation paradigm is not appropriate for all cultures It relies on creating a small amount of stress for the child and is based on experiences common in the USA where children are encouraged to be independent and explore The Strange Situation is MORE stressful for children in some other cultures Iapan mothers have close physical contact anticipate needs rather than respond to them babies are less encouraged to explore on own but are ore encouraged to engage in social activities Gusii infants in Kenya Infants are carried and held by their mothers throughout the day for most of the first year Germany Sweden and GB parents stress independence even more than is typical in the USA Results in higher avoidance rates on the Strange Situation test HOWEVER Infants in these cultures do develop attachment It is the test we use to assess it and how we measure it that is unsuitable in some other cultures Remember attachment is a strong affectionate connection to another that supports development It is the infant s first relationship REVIEW OF READING What was the article about Focuses on the human brain and functions to block out other stuff for survival but it Insulates us from a lot of stuff that s going on in the world What does Fredrick say happens when you experience positive emotions We become more resourceful over time Can set upward spirals in your life PZpositive experiences are selfbroadening They help you become more exible more in tune wiser knit you into the social fabric Fredrick s definition of love Something about warmth On page 4 he talks about impermanence about the rule of experience What does she mean by that As much as people love that things stay constant the only thing constant is change and we re always called on to adapt 2 biological market features oxytocin amp Nerve Oxytocin is a love feeling It is not absorbed by neurons it cascades through the body Trust game The results of the study showed that or investors that received oxytocin had more trust and gave more money to the trustees And the trustees who took the oxytocin were more likely to take the money and share half whereas the other half that took the placebo were more inclined to keep the money As you get trusted you become more kind Follow up studies that confirms this How does oxytocin affect the amygdala Enhancing the parts of the amygdala the positive responses amp suppresses negative responses such as stress If oxytocin is the positivity what is the bad Associated with stress Cortisol In this positive frame how does you body respond Raises natural level of oxytocin Lowers blood pressure heart rate More relaxed amp loving What makes oxytocin levels rise during those interactions Warm reactions of things When mom is interacting with baby there is behavioral synchrony What is the vegas nerve Page 17 huge important nerve from the brain stem to central organs Vegal tone the higher it is the healthier you are The most e 39ective way to coordinate blood amp heart beat You want a good strong heart beat carrying a lot of rich oxygen You want the exhale on the slower heart beat bringing back the blood You don t want a totally even breath or heart beat
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'