Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight
Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight FDNS 2100
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Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Boone on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Grossman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight Chapter 9 oz Problems of too little or too much body fat Underweight problems 9 Not enough reserves 9 Can t ght wasting disease Example cancer Overweight problems 9 Increased chronic disease risk o Central obesity quotapple shapequot is especially dangerous o Indicators of an urgent need for weight loss Development of Cardiovascular Disease type 2 diabetes sleep apnea hypertension etc 9 Most obesity lies in visceral and subcutaneous fat quotPearquot shape body is good apple shape body is bad 0 Body Mass Index BMI A ratio of height to weight A healthy BMI 185 249 Overweight BMI 25 299 Obese BMI 30 BMI s are not accurate for body builders because their excess weight is muscle not fat Obesity stats in 2014 o No state has a prevalence of obesity less than 20 o 5 states and the District of Columbia have a prevalence of obesity between 20 and 25 o 23 states plus Guam and Puerto Rico have a prevalence of obesity between 25 and 30 o 19 states have a prevalence of obesity between 30 and 35 o 3 states Arkansas Mississippi and West Virginia have a prevalence of 35 or higher o The Midwest has the highest prevalence 307 followed by the South 306 the Northeast 273 and the West 257 o These are all caused by a trend towards colossal cuisines 393 Fat Call Development During growth fat cells increase in number When energy intake exceeds expenditure fat cells increase in size When fat cells have reached their maximum size and energy intake continues to exceed energy expenditure fat cells increase in number again With fat loss the size of the cells decrease but the number of fat cells does not oz The Body s Energy Balance Energy In 9 Food and beverages calories Hunger o Physiological internal drive to eat 9 Low blood glucose 9 Controlled by internal body Appetite o Psychological external drive to eat 9 Often in the absence of hunger 9 Food looks good to eat If we only ate based on hunger we most likely would not gain any weight Factors that regulate hunger and appetite 9 Stress mood social settings time of the day hormones and neurotransmitters culture trauma or infection living in a cold climate etc Energy Out 9 Basal Metabolic Rate BMR Metabolism breathing and body temperature while at complete rest Greatest component for energy expenditure for most people 50 to 65 of total energy out o Thermic Effect of Food TEF Energy needed to digest food Roughly 10 of total energy needs 9 Physical Activity Intentional activity Example running walking etc To decrease fat stores energy in must be less than energy out oz Total Energy Cal Needs on eLC o 1 lb of body fat is equal to 3500 calories In order to lose 1 lb per week you would need to reduce your daily caloric intake by 500 calories oz Estimating Body Fatness Anthropometry o Skin fold test 9 Measures subcutaneous fat Underwater Weighing o Weight underwater vs weight in air 9 Measures density of body fat oats O Bioelectrical Impedance o Tiny electric current shot through body o Fat has more electrical current resistance than muscle DEXA o Xrays 9 Fat responds differently to xrays than muscles do BodPod 9 Measures body volume by air pressure 9 Body weightvolume body density o Body density is proportional to fat o This can also be used on infants oz Average healthy men have around 15 body fat and women have around 27 body fat oz In uences on Weight Gain and Obesity Hereditary and Genetic Factors 9 Evidence Adopted children have a similar body weight to their biological parents instead of their adopted parents If a child has 1 obese parent there s a 60 chance they will be obese as well If a child has 2 obese parents there s a 90 chance they will be obese as well If obesity is help off as a child they will probably be ne as an adult If obesity is prevalent during childhood the child most likely will be obese as an adult Sociocultural Factors 9 Palatability of foods Especially fat content Food Availability o Highly palatable high calorie affordable foods available 247 9 BIG problem in the US Age and Lifestyle 9 Physical inactivity increases as you age Psychological Factors o Loneliness addiction depression and stress in uence weight gain and obesity 393 Early Theories of Weight Regulation Fat Cell Theory 9 Obesity is in uenced by the total number of fat cells in the body Most fat cells are formed during childhood You can limit obesity if you limit the number of fat cells you have as a child Set Point Theory 9 Body fat is maintained around a set point Like a thermostat o Obese people have a high set point Hormones help regulate energy balance 9 Short term Ghrelin from stomach o Increase hunger by activating speci c brain cells 9 Ghrelin increases before meals and decreases after meals 9 Long term Leptin from fat cells Decrease hunger by activating speci c brain cells Obese people have higher Leptin levels but don t respond to it o Leptin resistancequot