Chapter 6 The Gaseous State
Chapter 6 The Gaseous State Chem 111-003
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sharneece Gary on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 111-003 at University of South Carolina taught by Dmitry V Peryshkov in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Chapter 6 The Gaseous State Vocabulag Solid has a fixed shape and volume 0 Density of a solid is give in gcm3 or gmL Liquid has a fixed volume but no definite shape 0 The density of a liquid is given in gmL Gas has no fixed volume or definite shape 0 The density of a gas is given in gL Pressure is the force per unit area exerted on a surface Partial Pressure The pressure exerted by each gas in a mixture Mole fraction the number of moles of one component of a mixture divided by the total number of moles of all substances present in the mixture Effusion the passage of a gas through a small hole into an evacuated space Diffusion is the mixing of particles due to motion Boyle s Law Charles s Law Avogadro s Law all have their quotownquot equations that all correlate to the PVnRT formula Note P pressure VVolume n number of Moles R008206 L atm k mol T Temperature Changing P and V A sample of a gas occupies 500 L at 0974 atm Calculate the volume of the gas at 100 atm when the temperature is held constant PV n RT pvNrt Step 1 find out all the information you have and need in this case you don t need the nr or t so just disregard it P 0974 p100 atm V500 L v Step 2 set up formula and solve for v PVpv 9 PVp v 0974 atm x 500 L 100 atm v v487 L Changing PT and V A sample of a gas occupies 40L at 25 degrees C and 20 atm of pressure Calculate the volume at STP T 0 degrees C P 1 atm Step 1 find out all the information you have and need in this case you don t need the n or r so just disregard it P 20 atm p 1 atm V 40 L V T 273 25 298 K t 273 K Temperature is to be recorded in Kelvin To convert from Celsius to Kelvin add 273 to the Celsius temperature Step 2 set up formulat and solve for v PVT pvt 9 PVtTp v 20 atm x40 L x273 K 298 K x 1 atm v 2184298 v 7329 L Molar Mass Calculate the molar mass of a gas if a 102 g sample occupies 220 mL at 95 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 750 torr Step 1 find out all the information you have and need P 750 torr 760 0987 atm V 220 mL 220 L n R 008206 T 95 273 368 K Step 2 Set up formula and solve for n PVnRT 9 PVRT n 987 x 220 008206 x 368 n 0217 30198 n 0007 19 mol n Step 3 Molar mass massmoles 102 g 000719mo Partial Pressures The total pressure of a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is 451 atm Experiment shows that oxygen is present at 322 atm Calculate the partial pressure of nitrogen Step1 Set up and equation P P N2 POZ Step 2 Put in numbers and solve 451 atm 322 Pn2 551322 Pn2 Calculate the partial pressure of Ar gas in a container that contains 23 mol of Ar and 11 mol of Ne and is at a total pressure of 14 atm Step 1 Apply the mole fraction Xar Xar Xne 2323 11 2334 676 Step 2 Take the mole fraction and multiply it by the total pressure 676 mol x 14atm Collecting Gases Sodium metal is added to excess water and 12 L of H2 gas produced in the reaction is collected over water If the pressure is 745 torr and the temperature 26 degrees C what was the mass of the sodium The vapor pressure of water at 26 degrees C is 25 torr 2Nas 2H20 l 9 H2g 2NaOHaq Step1 Find the pressure for H2 when you know the total is 745 torr and water is 25 torr 745torr 25torr 720 torr H2 Step 2 Find out the number of moles of H2 PVNRT NPVRT 720 torr 760 0947 atm 39 273K 26 C 299k N 0947atm x 12L 008206 x 299k N 11458724536 N0046 mol H2 Step 3 Convert moles of H2 to grams of Na 0046 mol H2 x 2mol Na 1 mol H2 0092 mol Na 0092 mol Na x 23g Na 1 mol Na