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by: Kayla Berlinberg

Phil1014.pdf PHIL100

Kayla Berlinberg
GPA 3.6
Into to Philosophy
Prof. Woody

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Into to Philosophy
Prof. Woody
One Day of Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Kayla Berlinberg on Wednesday November 5, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to PHIL100 at University of Washington taught by Prof. Woody in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 197 views. For similar materials see Into to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 11/05/14
What is the nature of reality How do we know O Pato s Allegory of the Cave o Presented in book The Republic o Dialogue bw Socrates and Glaucon Pato s older brother written during Peloponnesian War discusses nature ofjustice relations bwjustice and happiness and proper form of a just citystate I Prisoners chained in place and forced to watch shadows on the wall o their only experience is the shadows o shadows created by fire in the back of the cave people walking past holding various items I What do the prisoners make of their world I There is no one reality it all depends on your view and perception of the world o there is disorientation when going from dark to light Prisoners are us Cave is our world Shadows are our perceptions o not false info but not fact o can only have true beliefs of what is seen the fire the sun the shadow the visible realm the guy who comes back socrates o they want to put him to death for trying to teach them something that is crazy I Plato s theory of Forms o nonmaterial abstract Forms ideas posses the most fundamental kind of reality not the material the world has given to us through sensation o the Forms the fundamental components of all ideas are the only true objects of study that can provide us with genuine knowledge I What is the point o the nature of education o not putting knowledge into souls that lack it like putting sight into blind eyes 382 o but education takes for granted that sight is there education is the craft concerned with this is turning around 383 o the virtue of reason o seems to belong to something more divine which never uses its power but is useful and beneficial or useless and harmful depending on the way it is turned 383 O O o the position of philosophers in society o the city state who should govern o the philosopherKing reluctant ruler just compulsion I not doing itjust for the power I not out in the world inside the cave educating the reluctant I constantly having to convince o permanently alienated George Berkeley 16851753 I from Dublin ordained in Anglican Church I produced most influential work in his 20s I science psychology of vision I four concepts o idealism o materialism o empiricism o rationalism I idealism o the only things that are real are ideas o argues by conceivability arguments o think about the nature of the information then discuss what sort of things could create that idea o in truth the object and the sensation are the same thing and cannot therefore be abstracted from each other 385 c section 7 an idea cannot exist in any unperceiving thing o To be is to be perceived c section 8 but what is ideas are copies of things that do exist independen y c section 9 primary and secondary qualitiesproperties o primary quality inherent property extension figure motion rest solidity and number 386 o secondary color sound smell texture I vary depending on perspective section 15 conclusion section 35 the objects of my sensations exist but I deny that matter of corporeal substance does I abstraction o object and sensation are the same o cannot be abstracted from one another c all things are ideas o idealism immaterialism what is actually in this world Rene Descartes I dualism two distinct kinds of things bodysoul I materialism some objects exist independently of our minds constituted by material substance o corpuscular hypothesis takes observable bodies to be composed of material particles of corpuscles takes impulse action by surface impact to be the primary if not the sole means of communicating motion attempts to reduce all qualities of observable bodies both primary and secondary to the primary properties of the particles composing those observable bodies I Berkeley no unbridled speculation cannot see them cannot be perceived too materialist 0 Quine Posits and Reality o is my desk a swarm of vibrating molecules o how do I could I know I evidence convergence of indirect evidence benefits 0 simplicity I one general story that will tell you something familiarity of principle scope fecundity I once you have the theory use it to test on other parts of the world o testable consequences predictions are confirming I anything but this is just convenience I language analogies swarm of molecules the very sentences that propound them are gibberish by themselves there is not substantive molecular theory to delete but isn t the talk of ordinary bodies much the same conclusion we only have evidence on the perceptual stuff in whatever sense the molecules are unreal so too is the desk I restitution something went wrong with our standard of reality a moral to draw from our reconsideration of the terms reality and evidence is that posits are not ipso facto unreal o sense data are posits too o sense data evidentially fundamental o particles of physics molecules naturally fundamental o commonsense object conceptually fundamental I working from within o epistemology on this view is to logically prior somehow to common sense or to the refined common sense which is science it is part rather of the overall scientific enterprise


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