Chapter 5 Notes - Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition
Chapter 5 Notes - Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition AGR 321
Popular in Feeds and Feeding
Popular in Agricultural & Resource Econ
HIST 2111 A
verified elite notetaker
Mary Kate Murnen
verified elite notetaker
ECON 113 - 01
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
PHYS 1500 - 005
verified elite notetaker
This 47 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachael Marie on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AGR 321 at Eastern Kentucky University taught by Andrea Sexten in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Feeds and Feeding in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Eastern Kentucky University.
Reviews for Chapter 5 Notes - Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/08/15
UNIT 5 MINERL AN VITAMIN N T R ITI N 1 Ir n b g quotdVquot fr 1 F V I I 3 I llno 7 Iquot k I a I I UNIT 5 MINERAL AND VITAMIN NUTRITION I Student Objectives Identify minerals and vitamins into their correct classification Macro vs micro minerals Fat vs water soluble vitamins Understand how to formulate a diet differently for breeding vs market animals Understand how phytatephosphorus in feed ingredients influences ruminant and nonruminant nutrition Understand CaP ratio differences between species Be able to describe mineral antagonism and identify antagonisms that are commonly encountered in nutrition Know the difference between chelated and inorganic sources of minerals Know why dietary fat and water soluble vitamin additions are different Know what impacts vitamin stability Understand issues associated with vitamin stability in feedstuffs Know how vitamin intake by animals is typically managed by nutritionists Minerals I Minerals are inorganic elements essential for normal metabolic function Energy metabolism Protein metabolism Osmotic and pH Balance I All mineral elements must be consumed in the diet none can be synthesized by the body I Subdivided into categories based on the magnitude of the body s requirement Macrominerals requirements expressed as of the diet Microminerals aka trace minerals requirements are expressed as parts per million ppm of the diet MacroMinerals Calcium Phosphorus Sodium Chlorine Potassium Magnesium Sulfur Ca p Na Cl Calcium Ca I Distribution 99 of Ca is in the skeleton and teeth 1 of Ca is in the soft tissues blood muscle etc I Most exists in complex with phosphorus 21 ratio in the form of hydroxyapatite crystals I Functions of calcium 39 Formation of bone matrix ie hydroxyapatite Vusce contraction and relaxation Blood clotting Phosphorus P I Distribution 80 of P is in the skeleton 20 of P is in soft tissues I Severe deficiency results in bone abnormalities I Functions of phosphorus Formation of bone matrix ie hydroxyapatite Component of adenosine triphosphate ATP necessary for cellular energyyielding reactions Component of nucleic acids and enzymes When are Ca and P levels most important I Periods of Rapid Growth Majority of bone growth occurs early in life I Gestation and Lactation Elevated mineral requirement of milk production Ca and P deficiency results in weak or non ambulatory females Dietary Ca and P levels depend on goals IVIarket animals vs breeding animals Environmental concerns Effects of Increasing Ca and P on Pig Performance Ca and P Level Low Medium High ADG lbs 185 207 205 Ash 63 65 67 Breaking strength lbs 290 380 415 CaP Ratios I Monogastrics Generally a 121 CaP ratio is targeted At extreme ratios ie gt 21 Ca interferes with absorption of other minerals and decreases feed intake I Ruminants Generally a 21 CaP ratio is targeted At extreme ratios ie lt11 steers are at risk for urinary calculi aka waterbelly I The ratio is less important than adequate Ca and P in the diet Ca and P in Diet Formulation Forages are relatively high in Ca Foragefed ruminants require little or no supplemental Ca Grains are relatively low in Ca Limestone is usually added to grainbased diets Forages are relatively low in P Worldwide P is the most frequently deficient mineral Most grains are relatively high in P Only 13 of P in grains is available to monogastrics The other 23 is in the form of phytate phosphorus phytateP PhytateP Digestibility I Monogastrics Do not have the necessary enzyme to breakdown phytateP Requirements for P are expressed as available P and not total P A synthetic form of phytase can be added to swine and poultry diets I Ruminants Ruminal microbes produce the enzyme called phytase Phytase breaks down phytateP and releases P for absorption Effects of Phytase on P Balance in Finishing Pigs I P intake P excretion t P retention LL ON Phosphorus gd Ckth 04 P 03 P Phytase University of Kentucky 1997 ADG lbs Phosphorus Intakes of Yearling NRC Cattle Industry Requirement Average o o 05 5 ltgt 0 I O O I O ltgt ltgt 0 lt2gt ltgt 0 5 ltgtltgt ltgt ltgt ltgt 0 Q 80 ltgtlt2gtltgt O O ltgt ltgt 6 I O 08 I ltgt ltgt ltgt 2 ltgt O I I ltgt l I l l I 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Phosphorus Intake gd Erickson et al 1999 Phosphorus in Cattle Diets I Phosphorus is typically overfed in beef and dairy diets Common ingredients ie grains and byproducts can be very high in P People also add a margin of safety to their diets I This results in 5 to 10 lbs of excess P excretion in manure per animal per year I Reduction in dietary levels could benefit the environment and reduce certain difficulties with waste management Potassium K Sodium Na and Chlorine Cl I Electrolytes that help maintain osmotic pressure and acidbase balance I Deficiencies of K and Cl are rare I Deficiencies of Na are common depressed feed intake depressed growth and depraved appetite result Added to livestock diets in the form of NaCl salt Inclusion of S to 10 lbs of salt per ton in complete feeds is normal Freechoice salt needs to be continually available to grazing livestock Magnesium Mg I More than 300 mammalian enzyme systems are activated by Mg Many are associated with energy metabolism I Generally not limiting in concentratebased livestock diets because most protein sources and cereal grains are excellent sources of Mg I Cattle grazing on cultivated lush spring grasses can develop grass tetany Characterized by muscle rigor or paralysis Caused by insufficient Mg and Na and elevated K Prevention can be difficult because the most economical source of Mg Mg Oxide is bitter making voluntary consumption low Sulfur S The body contains about 015 sulfur Most of the S is bound organically Scontaining AA Sulfur nutrition is primarily a function of amino acid nutrition In general we don t supplement rations with sulfur However when using NPN for ruminants additional S may be beneficial for microbial synthesis of Scontaining AA Can have problems with toxicity when feeding by product feeds Polioencephomalacia PEM too much sulfur Trace Minerals Coba Iodine Zinc Iron Copper Manganese Selenium Co I Zn Fe Cu Mn Se Cobalt CO 0 I a tmii K 39 1 1 quotquotquotquot39 39 39 quotquotquot39W3 7 39 quotVk a I M myt 6 vquotV39Vquot39v39v39r39v3939v39 v39 Six3343433 quot Ehnyy yams 39V 39 A Muuoocc nun wryHM 1 M 5 v 5 5 N v 39 A 339 c O m p O n e r s s s sssysms39s u39 V quot7 quotquot39 39 u I v 39 quota c Iquot 2 x X r 92353539339 g39c YXXkXXS H s n r r v 39 I J 9T ll39 d39 39 Necessary for normal formation of red blood cells Iodine I I Component of thyroid hormones T3 amp T4 I Regulates basal metabolism and temperature homeostasis I Deficiency Goiter enlarged thyroid Hairless animals at birth Zinc Zn I Constituent of metalloenzymes involved in synthesis of hormones and other proteins I Deficiency results in Parakeratosis 39 Abnormal bone growth 39 lVIaIe reproductive disorders Iron Fe I The majority of iron in the body 6070 is present in hemoglobin and myoglobin Essential for O2 transfer between tissues I Deficiency is rare in the US Often secondary to parasitism Results in anemia and poor placental O2 transfer between dam and fetus D Metabolism of Fe via ceruloplasmin Needed for oxidization of Fe2 to Fe3 Allows incorporation of Fe into transferrin D Necessary for collagen tenderness and elastin synthesis D Necessary for normal pigmentation and texture of hair and wool Manganese Mn I Involved in energy metabolism as an enzyme component 39 Pyruvate carboxylase 39 Cholesterol synthesis I Involved in bone formation Chondroitin sulfate Excess cartilage Hu merus I Deficiency Poor bone development Altered glucose metabolism Selenium Se Component of glutathione peroxidase Scavenges free radicals and protects lipid membranes from oxidation Deficiency similar to vitamin E Nutritional muscular dystrophy White Muscle Disease Ruminants Mulberry Heart Disease Pigs Toxicity leads hoof abnormalities and a condition known as blind staggers Trace Mineral Premixes I Monogastics 39 Mn Fe Zn Cu I and Se 39 Inclusion rates of 15 to 30 lbs per ton I Ruminants 39 Mn Fe Zn Cu I Se and Co 39 Inclusion rates of 15 to 30 lbs per ton Trace Minerals I Some minerals have been shown to have growth promotional properties when fed at pharmacological concentrations in pigs I Zin Requirement 50ppm Growth promotion 3000ppm Weaning to 25bs of BW only Improves ADG 57 I Copper Requirement 10ppm Growth promotion 250ppm 25 to 150lbs of BW Improves FG 23 Mineral Antagonism I Mineral deficiencies are classified in one of two ways 0 Primary related to low intake of a particular mineral Secondary related to abnormal absorption distribution or retention of a particular mineral Mineral Antagonism quot quot 3 v 3 0 I K 2quot 39 i g g l g4 quot39 M9 Vif39V 9 r quot 39 Iquot K wquot Tillman 1966 Mineral Antagonism I Mineral deficiencies are classified in one of two ways 0 Primary related to low intake of a particular mineral Secondary related to abnormal absorption distribution or retention of a particular mineral I Mineral antagonism is the most common cause of secondary mineral deficiency I Mineral antagonism primarily affects ruminants Mineral Antagonism Adjusting Mineral Intake to Account for Antagonism I Discounting Dietary Copper Dietary copper should be discounted 8 ppm for each 1 ppm of molybdenum in the diet Dietary copper should be discounted 15 ppm for each 01 sulfur in the diet I Optimal Ratios to Prevent Antagonism Calcium Phosphorus 12 1 to 21 1 Potassium Sodium 6 1 Potassium Magnesium 35 1 Iron Manganese 25 1 Zinc Copper 4 1 Tracemineral Sources I Trace minerals can be provided in several forms Sulfates inorganic high relative bioavailability Oxides inorganic low relative bioavailability Chelates organic bound to amino acid high relative bioavailability I The choice of one over another is driven by cost and the speed with which mineral status of the animal must be changed Chelated Trace Minerals Chelated aka organic trace minerals are those bound to an organic molecule often an amino acid H2 quotI cquot quotwkquot cn3 s ACHZ 0 6 so ZInc Methlonlne n O They are distinct from traditional mineral sources in which the trace mineral of interest is bound to an inorganic salt eg sulfate or oxide ions Chelated mineral sources are reportedly absorbed and metabolized with 300 to 500 greater efficiency than inorganic mineral sources Marston et al 1999 Controversy exists as to the practical significance of this claim MacPherson 2001 Vitamins Organic components of food that are chemically distinct from water protein fat carbohydrates and mineral matter Present in minute amounts Essential for normal metabolism in animals and consequently required for normal growth development maintenance and reproduction Most are not synthesized by the animal in sufficient amounts to meet metabolic needs and therefore deficiency symptoms occur if they are deficient in the diet Generally function as enzyme cofactors FatSoluble Vitamins Stored in adipose tissue Daily intake is not necessary Toxicity can be a problem Vitamins A D E and K Vitamin A First fatsoluble vitamin to be discovered x alltrans BCarotene Vitamin A Retinol is required 1 by all animals W0 VItamIn A IS consumed In the 39 form of carotene its biological alltransRetinal precursor Conversion to Vitamin A occurs Wm in the mucosal cells of the S m a ll nte n e alltransFietinol Vitamin A Rhodopsin synthesis in the retina of the eye is needed for normal night vision Normal growth and maintenance of epithelial cells in the skin and digestive respiratory amp reproductive tracts Bone growth as a component of chondroitin sulfate Functions as a general antioxidant particularly in the hide or skin Vitamin A Deficiency I Night Blindness I Keratinization of Epithelial Cells Respiratory Infections I Reproductive Disorders Female increased abortions retained placentas lower calf vigor 39 IVIale decreased libido decreased sperm motility degeneration of seminiferous tubules Vitamin D I Vitamin D2 originates from ergosterol in plants I Vitamin D3 originates from 7dehydrocholesterol in animals Sunlight activates enzymes in the skin that convert 7 dehydrocholesterol to D3 Activation is stimulated by parathyroid hormone when blood Ca levels become low I Functions of Vitamin D Regulation of Ca and P blood levels Increases Ca and P absorption from the gut Increases Ca and P release from bone Vitamin D Deficiency Abnormal skeletal growth and development Inadequate bone mineralization Rickets young animals Osteomalacia old animals It is difficult to induce vitamin D deficiency in grazing animals Sunhght Forages are good sources of D2 Too much vitamin D causes decalcification of bone and calcification of soft tissues liver kidney and muscle Vitamin E I Fed in the form of atocopherol a precursor Ddtocopherol is naturally occurring DLdtocopherol acetate is a synthetic form commonly fed to animals 30 less potent than DOLtocopherol lVIost expensive vitamin used in animal diets Easily degraded by air and sunlight I Functions as an anitoxidant Prevents degradation of lipids in animal cells by free radicals Similar to the role of selenium they spare one another Toxicity is limited compared to other fatsoluble vitamins Vitamin E De ciency I Disruption of cell membranes and membranetransport mechanisms 39 Muscular Lesions IVIyopathy White Muscle Disease Ruminants Mulberry Heart Disease Pigs Liver Necrosis I Reproductive Failure I Unsaturated fatty acids in the diet can destroy Vitamin E Vitamin K Cofactor of enzymes involved with blood clotting Bacterial synthesis occurs in the rumen and in the large intestine Role of caprophagy eating feces It can also be derived from plants and microbes or produced synthetically Deficiency causes increased clotting time and hemorrhage Reasons for Supplementation Many feed additives inhibit growth of vitamin Kproducing bacteria in the gut Some forms of housing limit exposure to fecal material Watersoluble Vitamins Chemically unrelated to fatsoluble vitamins Not stored in the body Best if consumed daily Toxicity is rare Vitamin B B vitamins biotin choline folacin niacin pantothenic acid riboflavin thiamin pyridoxine B6 and cyanocobalamin B12 Nonruminants B vitamins are required Ruminants meet most B vitamin requirements through microbial activities in the gut Vitamin C Ascorbic acid vitamin C Nonprimate animals do not require supplemental vitamin C Vitamin Stability I Vitamins loose 3 to 50 average 5 to 10 of their potency with each month of storage I Vitamin stability and potency decrease with Storage Sunhght Humidity Exposure to trace minerals Thermal processing of diets I Vitamin availability from stored feedstuffs is low I Requirements of confined animals are met entirely through vitamin supplements ie premixes Factors Affecting Vitamin Intake by Animals Vitamin content of stored feedstuffs and forages is usually ignored by diet formulators Variation in vitamin concentration Variation in bioavailability of vitamins Vitamin losses during storage and feed processing Use of a limited number of feed ingredients Most nutritionists will meet vitamin requirements of animals using premixes only Inventory control must be strict The effective shelflife of most vitamin complexes is less than 60 days UNIT 5 MINERAL AND VITAMIN NUTRITION I Review Questions Identify minerals and vitamins into their correct classification Macro vs micro minerals Fat vs water soluble vitamins 39 How would you formulate a diet differently for breeding vs market animals 39 Describe how phytatephosphorus in feed ingredients influences ruminant and nonruminant nutrition 39 Understand CaP ratio differences between species 39 Describe mineral antagonism and identify antagonisms that are commonly encountered in nutrition 39 What are the differences between chelated and inorganic sources of minerals 39 What are the differences between dietary fat and water soluble vitamins 39 What impacts vitamin stability 39 What issues are associated with vitamin stability in feedstuffs 39 How is vitamin intake by animals typically managed by nutritionists
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'