Week 6-Islam & The Middle Ages
Week 6-Islam & The Middle Ages ST 150 - 20
Popular in The West in the World
Popular in History
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Tipton on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ST 150 - 20 at Ball State University taught by John Stanley Marsh (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
Reviews for Week 6-Islam & The Middle Ages
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/08/15
108 Islam Fundamental radical militant Islam 0 Islam must be one united nation 0 Islam should be one large state uniting all of the Islam states 0 Islam should be the dominant world power 0 View the world today as upside down 0 Infidels shouldn39t have money power and in uence Sharia law must be the law of the land 0 Having separate civil law and religious law is wrong 0 Sharia law A woman39s word is worth half a man s word in court Women overall have very restricted right Strictly forbids homosexuality punishments of death Leaving the faith punishments of death No interest in democracy 0 Examples of groups ISIS The Taliban Al Qaeda 0 Muslim countries controlled by fundamentalists have varying degrees of these ideologies 0 Some on the less fundamental side create alternate constitutions and don39t rule simply on sharia law in states 0 The Taliban went on a school bus and shot a 14 year old Pakistani girI Malala for speaking out against the Taliban for destroying schools and advocating for girls getting educated People stood and rallied for Malala in Pakistan as she recovered in England all the people involved were Muslim the struoole is internal here it was a small group of radical Muslims against entire communities Middle Ages The middle ages are broken into three sections over 8001500 Early part of the middle ages 500900 High middle ages 10001300 Late middle ages 13001500 3 civilizations which develop after the fall of the Western Roman Empire 1 Byzantine empire 2 Islam 3 Latin Christendom Roman Christian What happens in these areas after the Roman Empire fell 0 After the Roman Empire collapses and different parts are run by several different barbarian tribes the economy collapses travel is not safe laws fall constant war invasions back and forth a very dangerous dark uncertain time civilization goes into decline Populations go down as safety econ and food supply diminish o Learned people philosophy science medicine decline 0 For several hundred years western Europe is a messy uncertain place to live 0 People ban together to try to raise enough food to get by and protect themselves Charles Martel at Tours 0 Charles Martel also known as Charles the Hammer 0 Muslim army gets defeated by a Christian army of the Frankish tribe leader Charles Martel That area remains relatively safe from Muslim invasions Charles Martel was the grandfather of Charles the Great Charlemagne Charlemagne conquered various barbarian tribes o By 800 he conquers France part of Germany Austria part of northern Italy 0 Creates a Frankish empire loosely connected Empire held together by his warrior conquest o No common currency bath houses administration NOT the Roman Empire Somewhat more peaceful that it was under barbarian rule 0 Has himself crowned by the pope in Rome as Emperor of the Romans Borrowing on the glory of Rome with his title 0 Forcibly converts his empire to Christianity 0 Encourages education among the nobility nothing like GrecoRoman times of learning 0 When Charlemagne dies his empire is passed to his son who passes it to his 3 sons The Treatv of Verdun 843 divided Charlemagne s empire to his grandsons They divided the land based on good grape growing land The economy in the west was low production and trade compared to how it was economy largely based on raising enough to live on without much left to trade not much exchange and roads were not safe to travel Wine was produced in abundance more than what was used locally Winemoney The middle brother dies and that land is fought over and traded between the other brothers Sculpture of Charles Martel in the Ball State Library romanticized version made after his time Could use for the EXTRA CREDIT project 0 Western Europe again subject to a series of invasions o Invasions by the Vikings especially erce Little resistance no army to combat the Vikings when they sail UP Initially Vikings come as raiders burn sack no regard for religious sites Generally went right to churches cause that s where the little bit of silver an area had would be Carried off the women Made people slaves Killing children bashing them on rocks 0 Europe feels hopeless against these brutal attacks If you cannot stop the Vikings by force Some Vikings settle instead of raid opportunity to convert Tell the Vikings when they raid and kill they are going to go to hell so if they live more righteously they can be saved 0 Time where Hell is detailed in Christian literature 0 Originally hell was just separation from God the middle ages adds immense detail to the tortures sinners will face speci c punishments for each sin used to calm the violence of the Vikings Vikings stay rule and begin to adopt Christianity Not uncommon for priests and bishops to go to battle with their troops Bishop and priests would take a large club sometimes in the shape of a cross to bash in the heads of enemies not quotshedding bloodquot 0 Christianity emphasized a man can only have one wife even kings Any offspring with mistresses are not legitimate heirs for the throne so they don39t need to be killed off 0 Christianity had an impact on calming the violence of the middle ages NobHRy Clergylt gt Commoners By the high middle ages each of these three have a role in providing something for the other 2 Nobility provides protection Clergy provides the path to salvation Commoners provide food and work Code of Chivalry Fair ght Do good deeds for those in need or distress the commoners Uphold values and morals Defend Christianity Knights were under contract to their lord above them Honoring your oaths Some knights took the oaths very seriously others more moderately On the other end of the spectrum some knights who paid little attention Similar to Chivalric Code Today rules of engagement in war protecting others in need not going back on your word opening a door for a women loyalty put women and children rst History written by the clergy nobility so we know the most about them much less knowledge about the commoner life Commoner39s life Crusades Peasants are serfs bound to the land in servitude can39t be bought and sold like other property Can39t leave the land if they do leave they are outlawed Have to turn in certain about of return to the church They eventually gain freedom but still work as tenant farmer but they could leave and switch occupations The crusades were an attempt from Western Europe to retake the holy land Palestine and Jerusalem from the Muslims Begin in 1096 calling for a crusade to deliver the holy land from the in del Muslims Knights from Western Europe respond to this call 0 Months long journey to even get there 0 Why Religious reasons If they conquer land they get to be a lord or get spoils Pope offers disposition of sins for going on the crusade Glory trained to ght all their life Muslims were pushing on the edge of the Byzantine Empire not that the Western Christians are totally allied with the Eastern Christians but they don39t want to allow Muslims to push further west Interesting theory knights trained to ght all their life so if we can send them somewhere else we can get some peace for a while and reduce violence The rst crusade does fairly well and conquers land all along the coast and Jerusalem itself set up crusader states creating peace for a time with relative peace and trade with Muslims Muslims start conquering crusader states The second crusade was not as successful The third crusade had some success Many ways to get to the holy land over land totally partly land partly sea entirely sea o The fourth crusade plans to travel by see 0 Waiting for ships and never even make it to the holy land 0 All the holy land continues to be conquered by the Muslims The crusades opened trade with Muslims allow western merchants from Greece and Italy to get some goods from the far East which are very expensive by the time it is brought back to Europe The Norman Conquest of England 1066 o The English king dies and there are 3 claims for the throne one from England one a Danish kind who tries to invade and the invasion from William of Normandy o Normans descendants of Northmen aka Vikings 0 William of Normandv wins and is on the throne in England 0 William is French for the next century England is ruled by the French 0 Language of the court French a number of words come into the English language 0 In order to govern his lands in France and his new kingdom of England William sets up a very organized government 0 The pattern in the middle ages was decentralization William created an early form of a national looking government England is then more uni ed William orders a complete census including people animals woodlands etc 0 Know what is out there you know how much he can tax 0 Domesdav Book complete census of England in the year 1066 studied today Magna Carta Still in England in the year 1215 0 King John of England is not popular with the other members of nobility 0 They rebel against him 0 They defeat the king in battle Let him stay as king but demand changes and have him sign a document Magna Carta specifying his power over the nobility Can39t take a nobles land without due process 0 Can39t put a member of the nobility in the dungeon without a trial of peers to decide guilt Can39t raise feudal dues the nobility owes without approval 0 Down through the centuries this document becomes recognized as rights for ALL English citizens When English colonists show up in America with concepts of rights and protections o Magna Carta becomes part of American history on top of English history 0 Early foundational document not originally written to protect the common man the ideas in there managed to survive and broaden over time Romanesque Style If you want to understand middle age attempts at art science sculpture literature you have to understand Christianity Middle ages is the age of faith church provides cultural foundation for Western Europe Church is the one international body a powerful pull of Christianity on hearts and minds Christianity dominates middle ages Not time of great scienti c experimentation God created all and causes things to happen 0 not entirely stagnant period Architecture 0 Two major styles Romanesque stvle Rounded arches Columns 0 Heavy stone walls 0 Not the same as Greco Roman architecture but similar ME 0 More ornate Decorated spires Pointed arch can bear more weight than a rounded arch Flying buttresses when you build a stone wall up a heavy stone wall steadies a building from farther from the building and allows for taller construction Ribbed vaults raise the ceiling higher Allows for a lot more windows with different weight distribution Major difference between two styles is the amount of light inside 0 Art in churches became teaching aids the vast majority of people cannot read they cannot read what the bible says or know how they should live They get all information from the church The church delivers the message verbally Carvings and painting tell entire stories used as visual aids o Gargoyle Act as gutters functional purpose as a downspout removing water 0 Grotesque or Hunky Punk Has no functional purpose
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'