Notes Compilation 2
Notes Compilation 2 BIOL 1101 02
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by smanske on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1101 02 at University of Minnesota - Morris taught by Rachel M Johnson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of GenEvoDevo in Biology at University of Minnesota - Morris.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Biology Week 2 Notes 10615 10815 Molecular Genetics 0 What do genes do Dr Garrod o Studied alkaptonuria black urine 0 Isolated homogentisic acid by product of metabolism Metabolism process of breaking down food into energy Foodljstarches sugarsATP energy Garrod made the hypothesis Patients have a problem during metabolism in which the homogentisic acid isn39t being used as a buildingblock and is instead getting dispelled from the body 0 Homogentisic acid buildup was due to a mutation in a gene 194039s Beadle and Tatum 0 Used model organism bread mold Bread mold Neurospora crassa o Metabolism grow on minimal media Contains glucose salt biotin Makes DNA RNA protein and all biomolecules with these three precursors o Genetics Haploid organisms N No dominance or heterozygotes Beadle and Tatum o Induced mutations in bread mold cells using xrays o Concluded that only 520 were capable of growing on minimal media 0 Hypothesis cells that can39t grow have a problem with metabolism Metabolism Arginine Biosynthesis o Foodprecursorsljornithineljcitrullinearginineproteins This was determined from mutants that can39t grow on minimal media but can grow on minimal media plus arginine Auxotrophic Mutants mutant organisms that require a particular additional nutrient that the normal strain does not Complementary Testing 0 Look at two mutated strains o Is the same gene mutated or are two separate genes mutated o Complementary testing involves taking one cell with a known mutation and one cell with an unknown mutation and fusing them together to form one cell with two nuclei or a heterokaryoh If the fused cell can grow on minimal media the unknown does not have the same mutation as the known If it cannot grow on minimal media the unknown has the same mutation as the known Regulation of Gene Expression 0 Not all genes code for proteins or enzymes 0 Regulatory genes A gene can be either proteincoding or regulatory Regulatory genes don39t get transcribed or translated Each proteincoding gene is controlled by a regulatory gene in terms of whether or not they get transcribed 0 Ex E coli RNAP protein that transcribes proteincoding genes 0 Transcription and translation use a lot of energy 0 Cells need to be selective in what to transcribe and translate Lactose is not a common food source for E coli In most conditions lactose metabolism isn39t necessary Usually lac z y and a aren39t transcribed If lactose is the only food source present then they will be transcribed Lac Repressor protein binds to the lac promoter and blocks RNAP from translating lac z y and a If E coli needs to translate o Lactose will bind to lactose repressor so the repressor can39t bind to DNA allowing RNAP to transcribe lac z y and a
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