Week 4 Notes
U of M
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Rasmussen on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 3102 at University of Minnesota taught by Dr. Ferrales in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Crime and Social Control in Sociology at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Summary Week 34 Functionalist Theories Hagan Chapter 2 Values or beliefs centralljexplain crime Presenceabsence of success goals wo means to achieve themcriminal behavior Organized Crime public demand for illegal goods services organization of individuals to supply corrupt officials Ethnic succession Ianni ItalianAmericans racial groups will be segregated until economic success then replaced by new group 0 Criticized not all groups able to move out 0 Fewer sons each generation join each generation White Collar Crime Very broad includes anything in corporate contextwithin business structure with victims public consumers other members of business Greed or need Predator or Victim 0 Kathleen Daly s study in federal district courts I white collar convictions very trivial counts I women convicted were in lower position in company motivated by economic need 0 Donald Cressey s study of embezzlers I Nonshareable financial problems debtsissues that cause stigma don t want to reach out to sources of support Corporate culture view 0 Some businesses promote criminality because of high demandslow regulation environment 0 Innovator or criminal Milken situation Selfcontrol view 0 Hirschi and Gottfredson article 0 White collar criminals have low selfcontrol don t consider long term consequences 0 Criticisms one theory can t explain everything rely on Uniform Crime Reports that don t cover most serious crimes ignores role of other social forces Symbolic Interactionist Theories Shift from emphasis on values structural functionalist theories to how do individuals attach meaningdefine behavior determines behavior Differential Association Theory Becker s Becoming a Marijuana User 0 Howie Becker considers definitions of deviance situations of rulebreaking amp rule enforcement I what are these processes in groups I how different groups judge deviance differently how outsiders get labeled I deviance is not a quality of the act a person commits but instead a consequence of the responses by others social construct 0 The Case of Marijuana I Have to inhale associate the effect with pleasureIreconceptualizes as not deviant due to the group forces Edwin Sutherland 1924 0 Individuals only behave criminally when they consider it acceptable 0 Criminal behavior learned in association by groups that think behavior is acceptable away from groups that consider it unfavorable 0 White Collar Crime I Immersed in business world ideology of competition and innovation isolated from rest of the world Donald Cressey 1971 0 Expanded Sutherland s work further 0 Stock traders justified their crimes considered it acceptable Principles 0 Criminal behavior learned 0 Byproduct of interacting with others 0 Learn criminal behavior within intimate personal groups 0 Involves learning technique and attitudes 0 Becomes criminal when more favorable than unfavorable consequences to violating law Neutralization Theory Matza and Sykes 1961 0 Extended Sutherlandl namedlabeled characteristics of justifications for criminal behavior 0 Justifications counter moral issues learned from the social group 0 Five neutralization techniques I Denials of responsibility I Denials of the victim I Denials of injury I Condemnations of the condemners I Appeal to higher loyalties 0 EX Rape and genocide in Darfur I Militia dynamicspeer pressureappeal to higher loyalties I Dehumanization of the victims along racial lines ldenials of victim 10815 Labeling Social Reaction Theory Franklin Tannebaum 1928 0 Roots of model Dramatization of evil I At time biological perspective on crime predominant people were considered purely deviant 0 Focuses on how agents of social control respond to behavior I Church police teachers parents group level I Underlying causes of criminality beyond individual I Deviancy occurs in groups behavior selective processprogression from being truant childllmore serious crimes 0 Ricochet effects of police interactionssocial control begins change in how individual views themselves and others I Need changes in how punishment occurs I Selffulfilling prophecy of being labeled as deviant to becoming a deviant as they are ostracized from main group 0 Shift from the act being labeled deviant to the person being labeled deviant ie children being delinquent leading to teachers labeling them juvenile delinquents I Children accept label and don t believe they can be otherwise I Ex Padilla work on gangs Lemert 1951 Primary vs Secondary deviance 0 Primary is original act secondary is deviance that occurs as a role due to the effects of police the individual is labeled 0 Before and after the societal response so punishment actually triggers further issues I Flies in the face of conventional wisdom of punishment they are alienated from the society and join alternative subcultures Social Reaction Labeling Theory Becker 0 Rulebreaking behavior vs status of being labeled a criminal 0 Achieved vs ascribed characteristics 0 Dramatization of evil leads to the individuals being forced out of main group become more deviant from society 0 Behavior is the act labels include criminal rulebreaker etc Sets up the process of the change in the individual s selfconcept 0 Who is making the rules Why 0 Overview of Interactionist Theories Broaden the focus of the study of why people commit crime from functionalist values to include consideration of way social meaning and definitions help to produce criminal and deviant behavior Includes greater emphasis of the interaction being the controlling institutions after the initial act of deviance Padilla s Work on Gangs becoming a member of the gang constitutes turning Structural Functionalist 0 don t have legitimate means of gaining wealth 0 they are ostracized due to race from conventional society 0 created a system of norms that mirrors values of conventional society in that loyalty and trustpower are all highly esteemed Symbolic Interactionist Theories 0 early experiences in school were highly negative labeled as troublemakers and isolated from the rest of the class 0 police constantly mark them harass them as they are racially labeled