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THIST 478 Note

by: Hang Yee, Tang

THIST 478 Note THIST 478

Hang Yee, Tang
GPA 3.0
Europe in the Nineteenth Century
Johann Reusch

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Europe in the Nineteenth Century
Johann Reusch
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hang Yee, Tang on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to THIST 478 at University of Washington taught by Johann Reusch in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Europe in the Nineteenth Century in History at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 10/08/15
THIST 478 Europe in the 19th century 1 06 The Seven Years War 17561763 Louis XV 17151774 Proved to be incapable of dealing with France s nancial problems The Third Estate The Enlightenment John Locke J eanJ acques Rousseau New ideas about society and government The social contract The American Revolution Marquis de Lafayette France supported the colonists against Great Britain The French Revolution 17891799 Inspired other rebellions around the world lasting into the twentieth century Origins and outbreak Enlightenment ideas against oppressive government had gained legitimacy among millions and helped propel the nation into revolution Protest of nobility forces King Louis XVI 17741793 to call Estates General for new taxes May 1789 The Estates General Three Estates 1 Roman Catholic clergy 100000 2 Nobles 400000 3 Everyone else 24000000 serfs free peasants and urban residents Estates General founded 1303 had not met since 1614 One vote per estate The Third Estate organized themselves into the National Assembly the new legislative body for France 9 Upon hearing of these events presents rose up in the countryside to protest unfair feudal dues and obligations 9 On July 14 1789 a Parisian crowd attacked the Bastille an armory and infamous political prison Within three weeks the French National Assembly abolished the feudal privileges of the clergy and nobility and declared a new era of liberty equality and fraternity The National Assembly Confrontation with the King Louis XVI ordered the Third Estate locked out of the National Assembly s meeting hall The Tennis Court Oath Storming of the Bastille Rioting in Paris in early July Firing of Necker July 14th a mob storms and takes the Bastille The Court returns to Paris Mounting unemployment and hunger in Paris in the fall of 1789 October Days The point is that we want bread Women nearly killed the Queen The Royal Family returns to Paris on October 6 1789 Revolutionaries in the Streets Who were they Sansculottes without knee britches Picked up the ideas and slogans of the Revolution from the more educated leadership of lawyers and journalists What were the Motivations of these Revolutionaries Poverty and Hunger Low wages and fear of unemployment Heightened expectations and the exposure to a political perspective Cahiers Strong dislike for and distrust of the wealthy The role of conspiracy The Great Fear Rebellion spreads Peasants destroy the countryside Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was more radical than the American Declaration and guaranteed all citizens equality under the law and the sovereignty in the nation It threatened to end dynastic and aristocratic rule in Europe August 1789 American in uence Sovereignty resides in the people Individual rights Equality of men Women not included Olympe de Gouges unsuccessfully attempts to redress this in 1791 Women and the Revolution Women argued for equal rights to citizenship but the male assembly rejected on the basis that a fraternity of free men composed the nation Olympe de gouge wrote Declaration of the Rights of Women and Citizens proposing women s rights to divorce hold property in marriage education and public careers As the revolution gathered speed it split into different factions over the goals and clergy and aristocrats ed the country In 1792 the rst French Republic was proclaimed with a new National Convention elected by universal male suffrage Radicalization of Revolution Liberty equality fraternity National Assembly abolishes old social order Seizes church lands redef1nes clergy as civilians New constitution retains king but subject to legislative authority Convention elected by universal male suffrage Levee en masse conscription for war 1792 Guillotine invented to execute domestic enemies 1793 King Louis and Queen Marie Antoinette Civil Constitution of the Clergy Financial crisis National Assembly conf1scates and sells off church lands Church also secularized reorganized Clergy oath of loyalty Flight of the King The capture of Louis XVI at Varennes Reaction from Other Countries Illustration depicting Prussian King Frederick William III Austrian Emperor Leopold II and the Comte d Artois Louis XVI THIST 478 Europe in the 19th century 108 Longterm Causes of the French Revolution Everything previously discussed Absolutism Unjust socio political system Old Regime Poor harvests which left peasants farmers with little money for taxes In uence of Enlightenment philosophes Also System of mercantilism which restricted trade In uence of other successful revolutions England s Glorious Revolution 1688 1689 American Revolution 1775 1783 Shortterm Causes of the French Revolution Bankruptcy Caused by deficit spending Financial ministers Turgot Necker Calonne proposed changes But these were rejected Assembly of Notables voted down taxation for the nobility in 1787 Great Fear Worst famine in memory Hungry impoverished peasants feared that nobles at Estates General were seeking greater privileges Attacks on nobles occurred throughout the country in 1789 Estates General Louis XVI had no choice but to call for a meeting of the Estates General to find a solution to the bankruptcy problem All three estates Had not net since 1614 Set in motion a series of events which resulted in the abolition of the monarchy and a completely new socio political system for France Civil Constitution of the Clergy Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Perlgord 1754 183 8 National Assembly 17891791 Louis XVI did not actually want a written constitution When news of his plan to use military force against the National Assembly reached Paris on July 14 1789 people stormed the Bastille Constitution of 1791 Democratic features France became a limited monarchy D King became merely the head of state The Legislative Assembly created all laws Feudalism was abolished Undemocratic features Voting was limited to taxpayers Offices were reserved for property owners This new government became known as the Legislative Assembly Reforms in Local Government The 30 provinces and their petty tyrants Intendants were replaced with 83 new departments Ruled by elected religion Legislative Assembly 17911792 Royal family sought help from Austria In June 1791 they were caught trying to escape to Austria Nobles who ed the revolution lived abroad as emigres They hoped that with foreign help the Old Regime could be restored in France Church officials wanted Church lands rights and privileges restored The National Convention A J acobin Club First met on September 21 1792 Revolutionary Calendar Monarchy abolished France officially becomes a republic Leaders in the National Convention J ean Paul Marat Georges Danton War With Austria France declares war War of the first coalition Levee en masse Volunteering Execution of the King On January 17 1793 Louis XVI was convicted of treason Reign of Terror September 5 1793July 27 1794 Despite military successes the Convention continued to face problems domestically Danton and his J acobin political party came to dominate French politics Committee of Public Safety Headed by Danton and later Robespierre Those accused of treason were tried by the Committee s Revolutionary Tribunal Approximately 15000 people died on the guillotine I Guillotine became known as the National Razor Including innovative thinkers like Olympe de Gouges and Madame Jeanne Roland The Committee of Public Safety Created to cease an internal rebellion in 1793 Given dictatorial power Ruled France for nearly a year Political Reorderings The French Revolution 1789 1799 cont d The Terror Radical J acobins including lawyer Maximilien Robespierre 175 8 1794 launched the Reign of Terror to purge the nation of internal enemies and executed 40000 peasants and laborers imprisoned 300000 gtxlt The Incorruptible leader of Committee of Public Safety Leader of J acobin party Churches closed priests forced to marry Promoted cult of reason as secular alternative to Christianity Calendar reorganized ten day weeks proclaimed year 1 They instituted the first national draft and built an army of 800000 soldiers who sang patriotic songs End of the Reign of Terror Members of the Girondist political party tried to end the Reign of Terror initiated by the J acobin political party This opposition to the Committee of Public Safety caused many girondists to be tried and executed for treason Eventually even Georges Danton wanted to end the executions This resulted in Danton being tried and executed for treason Maximilien Robespierre became leader of the Committee of Public Safety He continued the executions Convention came to blame Robespierre for the reign of terror The Thermidorean Reaction Robesperre arrested on 9 Thermidor Committee of Public Safety dismantled J acobin clubs disbanded New constitution adopted in August 1795 The Directory 17951799 Promoted middle class interests Financial crisis Food shortages Riots in Paris Rise of Napoleon Revolutionary enemies of the J acobins Government under the Directory Executive 5 directors appointed by the Legislature Legislature Lower house 500 members proposed laws Upper house 250 members voted on these laws Members of the Convention would initially fill 23 of the Legislature Qualifications


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