Module 9 & 10 Notes
Module 9 & 10 Notes SOC 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by aubrey on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Whitaker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Liberal Arts at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Modules 9 amp 10 Study Sheet I09 1628 Module 9 Culture totality of learned socially transmitted customs knowledge material objects behavior ideas values and artifacts knowledge a person must have and use in a society in order to t in and not draw unwanted negative attention Ex ideas values and artifacts DVDs Comic Books Birth Control Sociological term of Culture consists of ALL objects and ideas within a society including slang 0 Similar culture helps to de ne the group or society to which you belong Society large group of people living in the same territory are relatively independent of people outside their area people who live within a speci c territory and share at least the basic elements of a common culture 0 Largest form of a human group Consists of people who share common heritage and culture Culture lndustry standardizes the goods and services demanded by consumers o Theodor Adorno says that the primary effect of popular culture is to limit peoples choices Cultural Universals common practices and beliefs that are adaptations to meet essential human needs such as the need for food shelter and clothing George Murdock compiled a list of cultural universals such as sports cooking dancing visiting personal names marriage 0 these are expressed differently from culture to culture and also change from generation and over time Ethnocentrism the tendency to assume that ones own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others William Graham Sumner An ethnocentric person sees their group as the center or de ning point of culture Our view of the world is in uenced by the society in which we were raised Cultural Relativism viewing peoples behaviors from the perspective of their own culture Places a priority of understanding other cultures rather than dismissing them as strange or exotic Cultural Relativists employ neutrality and study it scienti cally Max Weber Sociobiology and Culture the systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior sociobiologists assert that many of the cultural traits humans display are not learned but are rooted in our genetic makeup Stresses the universal human vaues Charles Darwins theory of evolution is what sociobiology is founded on o Sociologists apply his idea of natural selection to study social behavior they focus on how human nature is affected by the genetic composition of a GROUP of people who share certain characteristics men and women Module 10 Elements of Culture 0 Language 0 Norms 0 Values Sanctions Artifacts 0 Behavior Important Terms 1 Status a social position ex student or teacher 2 Role set of duties you must perform if you occupy a certain status plus the privileges you receive in return for performing those duties 3 Beliefs an agreement between members of a society about the existence and makeup of a speci c feature of their shared experience ex that thing over there is a tree OR the sun will rise tomorrow 4 Culture War the polarization of society over controversial culturally elements Psychologist Shalom Schwartz has measured values in more than 60 countries and certain values are widely shared including benevolence In the 19905 there were political debates over abortion religious expression gun control and sexual orientation Cultural Capital Pierre Bourdieu describes this as noneconomic assets such as family background and past educational investments that are re ected in a persons knowledge of language and the arts Language Is an abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of culture including speech written characters numerals symbols and nonverbal gestures LANGUAGE IS THE FOUNDATION OF EVERY CULUTRE Serves to shape the reality of a culture SapirWhorf Hypothesis describes the role of language in shaping our interpretation of reality It says that Language PRECEDES thought word symbols and grammar of language organize the world for us 0 Says that language is culturally determined and encourages a distinctive interpretation of reality Language can shape how we see taste smell feel and hear it also in uences the way we think about people ideas and objects around us Nonverbal Communication the use of gestures facial expressions and other visual images to communicate Symbols gestures objects and words that form the basis of human communication Mums and Values Norms the established standards of behavior maintained by a society For a norm to become signi cant it must be widely shared and understood Types of Norms 0 Formal Norms have been written down and specify strict punishments for violators laws formal norms enforced by the state 0 Informal Norms generally understood but not precisely recorded standards of proper dressno speci c punishment for violators o Mores norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of a society often because they embody the most cherished principles of a people 0 Folkways norms governing everyday behavior Play an important role in shaping the daily behavior of members of a culture less likely to formalizes folkways than mores Sanctions penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm Positive sanctions include pay raise a medal a word of gratitude Negative sanctions include nes threats imprisonment and stares of contempt Values collective conceptions of what is considered goodbad undesirable improper immora in culture Indicate what people in a given culture prefer as well as what they nd important and morally right or wrong Members of a society do not uniformaly share values Robin Williams offered a list of basic values including achievement ef ciency material comfort nationalism equality and the supremacy of science and reason over faith Culture and the Dominant Ideology Dominant ldeology describes the set of cultural beliefs and practices that helps to maintain the interests of those in power the Elites including social economic and political interests a This concept was rst used by George Lukacs and Antonio Gramsci but didn t gain an audience in the US until the early 19705 0 Functionalist and con ict theorists agree that culture and society are mutually supportive o Functionalists say that social stability requires a consensus and the support of society s members strong central values and common norms o Con icts say that common culture exists to serve and maintain the privileges of certain groups Look over Table 102 on page 27
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