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Week One Lecture Notes

by: Brittany Amerson

Week One Lecture Notes POLY SCI 427/HIST 486

Brittany Amerson
GPA 3.6
US Foreign Relations
Dr. Huesby

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About this Document

Since Huesby does not lecture by week, he lectures by topic, this chunk of notes include the first day basic concepts, Causes of War and Conflict in the International System and Realism. I tend t...
US Foreign Relations
Dr. Huesby
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Amerson on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLY SCI 427/HIST 486 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Huesby in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see US Foreign Relations in Political Science at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 10/08/15
Basic Concepts 10092015 Complicated 4 P s the quotstew of US foreign policy 0 The context of US foreign policy 0 The nature of the system anarchy or order 0 Threat or opportunity Jentleson s 4 P s 0 Power 0 Realism quotinternational relations is a struggle for powerquot interest de ned as power deterrence compellence o defensealliances 0 Peace 0 Diplomacy 0 International institutions Prosperity 0 Trade policy 0 Imperialism o neocolonialism 0 Principles 0 Democratic idealism 0 Soft power 0 O O 0 Security threats are foreign and domestic Complicated reality there is no longer a clear delineation between foreign actors and domestic security threats 0 What does this mean for boundaries of legislative domain The security of the oceans no longer applies Ideology transcends borders in the globalized world American economy is more internationalized than ever before 1960 foreign trade accounts for less than 10 of the US economy 0 now it accounts for almost 30 private nancial markets are increasingly globalized 0 not just globalized but increasingly automated computerized and digital 53 trillion dollars a day in transactions April 2013 up from 20 ve years ago Geographically dispersed nancial activity Events are harder to control and predict Operating in a multitude of political environments linked sometimes directly other times mathematically A more involved and diverse interest grouplobbying group Increasingly racialethnic diversity in the US Environment drugs policing health policy 0 Growth of nongovernmental organizations NGOs interest groups More interest groups involved in more policy areas In this context who decides that the national interest is Helpful to understand the environment in which choices are made The nature of the international system 0 Anarchy Leviathan the international system as quota war of all against allquot 0 While we do have institutions that regulate behavior in more ways than in the past 0 Essentially best described by anarchy Stag Hunt metaphor actors believe their own interests are more important than everyone s interest as a result this lowers the success of the common goal as not everyone is contributing and people do not believe everyone will contribute but hoping they will while they still aren t participating themselves Democratic peace theory democracies are hesitant to engage in armed con ict with other democracies Dissuades state sponsored violence Soft power ability to shape the preferences of others through appeal and attraction The ability to attract coopt rather than coerce Noncoercive culture political values foreign policy diplomacy The Stag Hunt an inherently anarchic system The Pursuit of power by states has long been put forward as the main explanation for the outbreak of war and con ict between nanns 0 Simple de nition of power the ability of one actor to persuade another to do what it otherwise would not do 0 power is the exercise of in uence over another to coerce or to obtain what one wants through manipulation if Hobbes is right about the nature of man then you have to assume evil intent in the international system and emphasize quotpace through strengthquot 0 this represents the view held by realist thinkers Kissinger Morganthau Thucydides Emphasize military strength ldealists Plato Locke Rouseau Kant believe in man s capacity for good and the construction of peaceful societies 0 Emphasis towards establishing quotcollective securityquot arrangements and through efforts to establish international cooperation 0 Obviously opposite ends can be in the middle 0 Basic assumptions about the international system and the nature of man affect what policies you tend to support Realism has bee the largely dominant perspective in security studies and for understanding con ict Oriented around power and competition among states for the resources that de ne or enhance power Developed as a modern school of though as a reaction to what was perceived as idealism s failure in WWI Cold war further accelerated its adoption in security affairs 0 Father of modern Realism Hans Morgenthau Politics among Nations 1948 o Outlined Realist beliefs about the nature of the international systems and prescriptions for dealing with it o Tenets of realist thought can be traced as far back as the Greek historian Thucydides who wrote on the history of the Peloponnesian War in the 5th century BC 0 Thucydides father of political realism o Looked at the nature and caused of the con ict between Athens and Sparta o Expressed realist notions of power politics and the state as power 0 Argued that morals do not enter into international politics and believed the quotweak often go to the wallquot Politics are ruled by strength 0 Articulates the descriptions of the causes of the outbreak of war that echo concerns of many modern realists Entangling alliances trade routes came in con ict with each other Competing economic interests allies of Sparta controlled a region close to Athenian trade routes Competition and rivalry two city states were rivals for allies and prestige Competing ideological interests Athens allied to a number of democratic cities Sparta allied with similar authoritarian states Personal fear and prestige Thucydides notes that the growth of a Athenian power provoked fear in Sparta and made war inevitable regardless of the Megarian Decree racial strife Ionian and Dorian Greek racial tension poor leadership the wisdom of Pericles vs self seeking reckless counter interests The Melian Debate 0 Small ally of Sparta which had been surrounded and ordered to surrender by the Athenians o Athenians said quotyou know as well as I do that the question of right only arises between equals in power and that the strong do what they can and the weak suffer what they must of the gods we believe of men we know that it is the law of their nature to rule wherever they can We were not the creators of this law nor the rst to act we simply make use of it knowing that if you were as powerful as we are you would do what we doquot 0 Men were killed women and children became slaves as Melians did not surrender 0 Not taken well in Athens and as a result lost a lot of prestige Six Principles of Political Realism 0 Politics like society in general is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature 0 Hobbesian view of the nature of man and the characteristics of the international system We are rational and we rationally pursue our interests 0 Concept of interest de ned in terms of power 0 Assumes the international interests of states are only de ned in terms of acquiring and maintain power Statesmen think and act ONLY in terms of interests de ned as power lgnores all other motive Ignores psychology of individual leaders I These are all the same pursuing power Assumes the key concept of interest de ned as power is an objective category which is universally valid 0 Regardless of culture religionthe pursuit of power is a universal behavior 0 quotanything that establishes and maintains the control of man over manquot Morganthau de ning power 0 maintains that universal moral principles cannot be applied to the actions of states 0 it adopts a Machiavellian quotends justi es the meansquot formulation regarding state actions in the international pursuit of power 0 no morality in international affairs the state has n 0 right to allow morals to get in the way of successful political action especially when national survival is involved 0 sacri cing power for the pursuit of morality is immoral o moral laws are not universal 0 attempts by states to justify their particular power aspirations in great moralreligious terms is a smoke screen 0 talk of equality or democracy or religious purity are in reality just rhetoric 0 all states are after power alone regardless of rhetoric realism subordinates all other standards of though to poH calones 0 political considerations about power dominate other belief systems whether they be ideological religious etc o the struggle by states for power is universal in time and space


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