Module 34 & 38 Notes
Module 34 & 38 Notes SOC 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by aubrey on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Whitaker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Liberal Arts at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Modules 34 amp 38 995 148161 Module 34 Social Construction of Gender 0 Gender roles expectations regarding the proper behavior attitudes and activities of males and females oSociaI behavior does not necessarily mirror these roles oMost people do not display strictly masculine or feminine qualities all the time oWe constantly DO gender And we assess others actions that tend to exaggerate malefemale differences Homophobia the fear of and prejudice against homosexuality contributes signi cantly to rigid gender role socialization since many people stereotypically associate male homosexuality with femininity and lesbianism with masculinity 0 Michael Kimmel the fear that someone will get the wrong idea about YOU Social norms regarding sexual behavior are changing along with changes in malefemale norms but change is SLOW 0 Multiple Masculinities men play a variety of gender roles including a nurturing caring role and an effeminate gay role in addition to their traditional gender role of dominating women Memsexual and bromance Suggest that men should feel comfortable embracing traditionally feminine tastes or developing deep friendships with other men Functionalist Perspective Functionalists maintain that gender differentiation has contributed to overall social stability Talcott Parsons amp Robert Bales argued that to function most effectively the family requires adults who specialize in particular roles Traditional gender roles display the need to establish a division of labor between marital partners 0 Expressiveness denotes concern for the maintenance of harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family lnstrumentality refers to an emphasis of tasks a focus on more distant goals and a concern for the external relationship between ones family and other social institutions Con ict Perspective There are underlying power relations between men and women that are unequal Roles have an unequal value to society yet their inequality is quite evident Marx analogy that men are like the bourgeoisie or capitalists and they control society s wealth prestige and power whereas females are like the proletariat or workers and they acquire valuable resources only by following the dictates of their bosses Feminist Perspective Feminist sociologists mainly agree with the con ict perspective and view the oppression of women as inevitable in ALL male dominated societies Engles women s subjugation coincided with the rise of private property during industrialization Many contemporary con ict theorists view subordination as part of overall exploitation and injustice inherent in capitalist societies Contemporary feminists recognizes the differential treatment of some women not only because of their gender but also because of the intersection of their race ethnicity and socioeconomic status 0 Whites dominate poor non white women 0 Men dominate women 0 Af uent dominate poor Patiricia Hill Collins contemporary theorist Matrix of Domination convergence of social forces that contributes to the subordinate status of these low status women lnteractionist Perspective Study social interaction to understand gender strati cation do not research on the role of gender by looking at crosssex conversations crosstalk The key to this approach is the way gender is socially constructed in everyday interactions We do gender by reinforcing traditionally masculine and feminine actions Module 38 The quotoldest oldquot 85 segment is growing at an even faster rate than the senior group 65 generally Age Strati cations in the United States Compared with the rest of the population the elderly are more likely to be female than male Men have a higher death rate than women at every age Women out number men by a ratio of 3 to 2 Among the oldest the gap is 5 to 2 Elderly are more likely to be white about 80 Wealth and Income 0 Older people who enjoyed middle class incomes while younger tend to remain better off after retirement 0 Social security provides 39 percent of all income received by older people in the US 0 9 of the nations elderly population lives below poverty line 0 female headed households and racial and ethnic minorities are at the extremes of the poverty line Ageism Robert Butler term that refers to prejudice and discrimination based on a person s age For many age symbolizes disease Competition in the Labor Force 0 Age Discrimination in Employment Act ADEA went into effect in 1968 protects workers who are age 40 and older from being red because of their age and replaced with younger workers The Elderly Emergence of a Collective Consciousness American Association of Retired Persons AARP largest organization representing the nations elderly founded in 1958 by a retired school principal who was having dif culty getting insurance because of age prejudice 0 Services involve discounts and insurance 0 Recognizes that many elderly people are still gainfully employed 0 3ml largest voluntary association in the US 0 Services and Advocacy for GLBT Elders SAGE established in NYC in 1977 an organization for elderly homosexuals Social Policy and Age Strati cation The Right To Die Worldwide Euthanasia de ned as quotthe act of bringing about the death of a hopelessly ill and suffering person in a relatively quick and painless way for reasons of mercy much debate over whether this is assisted suicide or not 0 Active Euthanasia current public policy in the US does not permit this It is the deliberate injection of lethal drugs into a terminally ill patientalso known as physicianassisted suicide 0 Passive Euthanasia greater legal tolerance disconnecting life support equipment from a comatose patient Euthanasia is legal and widely accepted in the NETHERLANDS BELGIUM and SWITZERLAND AHA estimates as many as 70 of all deaths in the US are quietly negotiated Senilicide quotkilling of the agedquot many societies have been known to practice this because of extreme dif culties in providing basic necessities such as food and shelter Death and Dignity Act became a law in 1997 Oregon was the rst state in the US to allow assisted suicide later in 2009 voters passed a similar law in Washington state VIDEO quotGENDER WITHINquot NOTES 5 individuals that were videotaped during this video Matt Nate and Paul had been born female but later transformed themselves into men Denise and Britton were born male but felt like they were in the wrong body so they transitioned to female Matt said he should ve been born male and was initially so worried he would upset his parents so he tried to make himself be a girl but just had too strong of feelings as being a male trapped in a female body His advice to others was to be sure to get the right doctor Denise successfully transitioned from being a male to female got her penis removed and had a lot of pain but all during recovery she was on cloud nine because physically she felt more like a woman Britton was originally a man and put in a lot of effort to try tting in as a male even joined a frat in college didn t work out so ended up transitioning to being a woman Nate always felt he was a boy though he feared his parents wouldn t be accepting of this his girlfriend said that masculinity is more than what you have in your pants His advise is to not rush the transition process and give those around you time to adjust to the transition Paul had his breasts removed and at his 50th birthday decided to get a penis because even though it was expensive it was too much part of his identity to not do it
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