Module 23 & 24
Module 23 & 24 SOC 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by aubrey on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 101 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Whitaker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Liberal Arts at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Modules 23 amp 24 995 92105 Module 23 Social Control techniques and strategies for preventing deviant human behavior in any society Sanctions penalties or rewards for actions that breakconform to social norms death penalty the ultimate formal sanction Obedience and Conformity Obedience compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure Conformity going along with peers individuals of our own status who have no special right to direct our behavior Stanley Milgram wanted to see if people would do horrible things to others against their own consciences just because some authority gure told them to It turns out that most 23 of us WILL just blindly do what some authority gure tells us to do even if it is against our own moral values Informal and Formal Social Control Informal Social Control words and actions signifying approval or condemnation of an individual s action to keep people compliant with norms smiles frowns laughing pointing raised eyebrows Formal Social Control words actions signifying approval or condemnation of an individual s action to keep people compliant with norms arrests nes getting red Law and Society Law governmental social control Control Theory suggests that our connection to members of society leads us to systematically conform to society s norms Family members friends and peers induce us to follow the mores and folkways of our society Module 24 Deviance Textbook de nition behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society Involves violation of group norms which may or may not be formalized into law 0 Dr Whitaker39s de nition departures from the norm could be in a positive OR negative OR neutral direction Types of Deviance 1 Good deviance action that departs from the norm in a sociallyapproved positive manner 2 Bad deviance action that departs from the norm in a way that is criticized or condemned and sanctioned by society 3 Default deviance overall physical functioning of an individual or characteristics of appearance which depart from the average human condition and which the average person would regard as substantially undesirable StigmaErving Goffman interactionist Textbook de nition abe society uses to devalue members of certain social groups 0 Dr Whitaker39s de nition a discredit taint or stain applied to an individual and or his her character Stigma Management Goffman distinguished between alreadystigmatized persons and those who have the potential to be stigmatized if their deviance ever becomes known about 0 The discredited individuals who have voluntarily disclosed their deviance who have had it disclosed by others against their will or who deviate from the norm in a way that cannot be concealed o The discreditable individuals whose deviance is concealable who manage to keep it concealed o Disidenti ers props actions or words that serve as a smoke screen to cover their deviance EX a minister preaching sermons about the evils of adultery as part of a cover up of his own extramarital affair o Deviance Avowal the tainted individual can raise the subject of their deviance when talking to a normal person then break the ice by making a joke about it Deviance disavowal in interaction with you others politely ignore your deviance and treat you AS IF it did not exist You and the others are thereby constructing a shared reality in which your deviance does not exist Functionalist Perspective on Deviance o Emile Durkheim o Punishments established within a culture help de ne acceptable behavior and contribute to stability 0 Kai Erickson o Took the above idea from Durkheim and created Boundary Maintenance Theory Deviance is functional for society because once you identify it and punish the person for deviance then it shows everyone else that this kind of behavior is not acceptable 0 Anomie Theory of Deviance Durkheim 0 People are more likely to break society s rules when their world is turned upside down by catastrophic occurrences such as war nuclear disasters or periods of very rapid social change when society s norms along with everything else appear to be in ux Merton39s Structural Strain Theory 0 Based on the idea all society s members have the same goals wealth material possessions but not all members have equal access to the means of achieving those goals Strain felt by those with little or no access who adapt to their situation in various ways lnteractionist Perspective 0 Differential Association Theory Edwin Sutherland o Deviance is LEARNDED It is learned through interaction with others those others tend to be signi cant others family members close friends What is learned 0 Favorable attitudes toward rule breaking 0 Mechanics of accomplishing speci c types of deviant acts 0 Labeling Theory Howard Becker 0 Deviance is that which is so labeled it is others response to an act not that act itself which creates deviance according to which acts are labeled deviant and which are not Often it is the characteristics of the actor that cause one person doing the act to get the deviant label while another person doing the act does not Con ict Perspective People with power protect their own interests and de ne deviance to suit their needs The entire criminal justice system in the US treats suspects differently based on their racial ethnic or social class 0 Differential Justice differences in way social control is exercised over different groups Feminist Perspective Existing approaches to deviance and crime were developed with men in mind Society tends to treat women in a stereotypical fashion
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