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Lecture Notes

by: Valerie Ho

Lecture Notes 209

Valerie Ho
GPA 3.53
research methods
Jacqueline Pickrell

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research methods
Jacqueline Pickrell
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Valerie Ho on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 209 at University of Washington taught by Jacqueline Pickrell in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see research methods in Psychlogy at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 10/08/15
Psych209 Chapter 9 Revision Categories of Inference Inferences about constructs Construct Statistical inferences Statistical Causal inferences Internal Inferences about generalizability External Experimentation and Validity Validity of measurements VS Validity of experiments A measure is valid if it measure what An experiment is valid if it provides it is supposed to measure construct understanding about behavior that it is statistical supposed to provide internal external Types of Validity Types De nitionconcept Construct Concerned with whether the study is measuring what it is intended to measure ie how do you know a frustration test is actually measuring frustration and not something else Key clear operational de nitions good measure techniques Statistical Association between the IV and DV causeeffect relationship Conclusio ie if participants behaved differently on levels of frustration is n it a genuine difference or just because of chance Key if there is actually an effect of IV on the DV power if the strength of the relationship between IV and DV is accurate Internal Something other than the conditions in the study affecting the behaviors of the participants ie confounds ie is it really the frustration conditions that is affecting the participants or something else External Whether the results of the study can be generalized into other settings or populations in the real world Examples used 1 Heredity and Learning Ability o Experimenter Tryon 0 Used maze performance to infer cognitive ability 0 Conclusion Heredity in uence a species psychological characteristics 2 Color and Achievement Performance 0 Elliot et al 2007 o Is exposing students to a large red green or black code number on a booklet a valid manipulation of color 0 Are scores on anagram and arithmetic tasks a valid measure for quotachievement performancequot Psych209 Chapter 9 Revision Statistical Conclusion Validity Are the results due to chance or due to a cause and effect relationship between the IV and DV Terms 0 Power The ability to see an effect of the IV on the DV and see if it is actually there 0 Effect Size The strength of the relationship between the IV and DV Threats to statistical conclusion validitv Erroneous choice of statistics Limited power When the effect of IV on DV is missed probably caused by very few subjects Inaccurate Effect Size estimation External validity VS Internal validity The degree to which research ndings generalize beyond the speci c context of the experiment being conducted to other people places and times Ecological validity Addresses generalizability to quotreallifequot settings Mundane realism Addresses similarity between experimental environment and real world setting Psychological realism Addresses degree to which experimental setting encourages participants to behave naturally more important Replication Process when studies are repeated to see if the original ndings are upheld The degree to which an experiment is methodologically sound and confoundfree The extent to which a study provides evidence of a causeeffect relationship between the IV and DV Without internal validitythe effects of the IV are confounded Threats to Internal Validity o Ambiguous Temporal Precedence which came rst 0 History Events that occur during a study that are unrelated to the experimental manipulation o Maturation People naturally change overtime irrespective of what happens to them during a study 0 Effects of Repeat Testing Changes caused by the testing procedure 0 Instrumentation Changes that Psych209 Chapter 9 Revision D If the evidence supports the original ndings then external validity accumulates through replication Direction replication Researchers mimic original procedures Conceptual replications Examine the same research question but operationalize constructs differently Replication and extensions Adding a new design element to the original study Bottom line Factorial designs are ideal occur in the instrument used to measure data eg when the apparatus is recalibrated over the course of a study Regression Effect Happens when subjects receive extreme scores tend to have less extreme scores when retested oven in the absence of any treatment effects Attributable to measurement error Selection Caused by nonequivalent groups arranged at the start of the study MortalityAttrition When subjects drop out of a study Particularly when subjects who dropped out differ meaningfully from those who stayed in the study ie Differential Attrition Solution to Internal Validity Threats Internal Validity Threat Solution History Maturation Testing Instrumentation Regression to the mean Psych209 Lecture 20515 Control Ways to rule out threats to validity Two basic meanings General Strategies to Increase Control Standard for comparison Minimizing variability o In the Lab 0 Preparation StatisticalControI Replication Speci c Strategies Instrumentation how to measure data For Control in a WithinSubjects Deggn For Control in a BetweenSubjects Deggn Where each subject is used as their OWN control Control condition Occasion when the participant or subject DOESN T get the IV Experimental Condition The participant or subject gets the IV Control group When the participants DON T get the IV Experimental Group Participants that get the IV Random Assionment Every subject has an equal and independent chance to be in a group Matching Making sure that the groups are equal on one or more variables before the experiment starts The need to control experimenter bias Experimen ter Expectancy Effects Research may unintentionally in uence their participants to respond in line with the hypothesis We can combat this by training experimenters to follow a research protocol Automate as much as possible 0 Keep experimenters unaware of the hypothesis andor experimental condition being run through masking aka Blinding Participant Bias When participant s behavior is affected by their expectations and what they believe they should do in the study then reaction in a way that either supports or don t support your hypothesis 0 So are participants good subjects or de ant subjects 0 Demand characteristics stuff that shape participants beliefs about the hypothesis and how they are expected to behave o Is participants standing on the DV due to the IV Demand characteristics Or both Demand characteristics Solutions 0 Avoid withinsubjects designs 0 Separate out participants who claim to know the hypothesis do their results differ 0 Apply the quotRed herringquot technique leading participants to think they know the purpose of the study while the experiment is actually testing for another thing Double blind procedures Neither participants or the experimenter knows which IV is given Ceiling and Floor Effects Ceiling Effects Occurs when scores bunch up at the maximum DV level eg All employees receive outstanding performance ratings Floor effects Occur when scores bunch at the minimum DV level eg When all employees receive unsatisfactory performace ratings Research Design Tips 0 Combat ceiling and oor effects by using highly sensitive measures and strong manipulations Pilot studies can identify problems here and elsewhere Incorporate manipulation checks to assess validity of IV manipulation o Debrief participants thoroughly to gain insight into their experience Control Groups Useful when the research calls for comparisons of some treatment with some baseline level of behavior Four types of control groups study 1 Untreated control group 2 Placebo control group 3 Waiting list control group 4 Yoked control group Placebo control group inactive substances eg sugar pill in a drug study 0 Participants in the placebo control group believe they are receiving the treatment when in fact they are not they are able to examine expectancy effects Waiting list control groups Different Yoked control group 0 Each member of control group is yoked to member of the experimental group 0 Used when Participants in a study for carrying am90unts of time or are subject to different types of events eg eyewitness memory of children in pain


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