10/6-10/8 Chapter 9 & 10 Notes
10/6-10/8 Chapter 9 & 10 Notes BMS 208-03
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 208-03 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Lanier in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Joints 10915 1226 AM Homework is worksheet on Blackboard Types of movement Articulations Arthrology The study of joints Artho prefix for joint 0 Arthritis inflammation ofjoints 0 Joint Classification Joints are the weakest part of skeleton places where two bones are coming together 0 Structure binding material how they39re made Fibrous Connective Tissue collagen fibers very tough hold bones together a Skull Structures Cartilage n Fibrocartilage intervertebral discs symphysis pubis n Hyaline Cartilage costal facets Synovial Fluid allows greatest amount of movement makes movement most painless a Knee shoulder hip and ankle o MovementFunctional how they work Synarthrosis single many synarthroses no movement allowed a cranial structures sutural joints in the skull n Epiphyseal Plate in developing long bones n Costal Cartilage between ribs and sternum Amphiarthrosis slight movement allowed a Symphysis Pubis n Intervertebral Discs n Interosseous membrane joint between the ulna and radius amp tibia and fibula Diarthrosis free movement allowed shoulder hip elbow ankle wrist are synovial joints n Types Gliding planar two bones slide against each other 0 carpal and tarsal bones o Sternoclavicularjoint o In between superior inferior articulating process Hinge decrease or increase the angle 0 elbow joint 0 knee joint very unstable joint why it needs so many ligaments needs 6 of them 0 Interphalangeal Joints in between finger joints 0 Pivot rotate around an axis 0 radioulnar the head of the radius rotating in radial notch when doing pronation and supination this is happening belwoe the elbow o atlantoaxial rotation Ellipsoidal condyloid move back and forth and side to side 0 metacarpophalangeal knuckles o radius with scaphoid o atlantooccipital joint cranium and C1 0 Saddle permits thumb move toward other fingers articulating surfaces shaped like a saddle o trapezium amp metacarpal of the thumb Base of the thumbof the first digit 0 Ball and Socket most freely moveable synovial joint multiaxial permits movement in three axes o Shoulder joint amp hip joint 0 glenoid fossa more shallow than the acetabulum for the head of the femur forming the hip joint Structure of Typical Synovial Joint where two bones come together Articular Cartilage Hyaline cartilage that is on top of the separations between bones protects the bones allowing smooth sliding Periosteum allow the bones to remain in alignment Yellow Bone Marrow Fibrous Joint Capsule fibrous layer of dense connective tissue that prevents the bones from getting pulled apart Synovial Membrane produces synovial fluid These are both part of an Articular joint Capsule Joint Cavity space that contains small amount of synovial fluid reduces friction permits separation of the articulating bones Ligament dense regular connective tissue connect the bones amp strengthenreinforce the synovial joints Muscle System 10915 1226 AM Three Types of Muscles Skeletal Cardiac Smooth all muscles are pulleys Skeletal shortening leads to movement of bones voluntary has banding patterns 0 Functions Produce skeletal movement Maintain posture and body position a more loss of core tone less support for spine and alignment of spinal vertebrae height loss a Epidemic the amount of sitting affects postural alignment Support soft tissue Guard entrance and exits urinary amp anal sphincters Maintain body temperature 0 Organization of Connective Tissue in a Skeletal Muscle Single muscle fiber composed of many fascicles Types of Connective Tissue n Epimysium several fascicles grouped together and surrounded by this n Perimysium several muscle fibers in a group surrounded by this is called one fascicle n Endomysium each muscle fibercell surrounded by this Use less cellsfibers to lift lighter objects recruit more fibers to lift heavier objects 0 Internal Structure of Skeletal Muscle Fiber Myofibrils so dense that they push the muscle nuclei to the periphery fill in the entire muscle fiber mitochondria vital for ATP production Sarcolema sarco muscle muscle fiber cellular membrane has little pores that leads to a specific structure that allows quick spread of what enters transverse tubule Sarcoplasmic reticulum a network of tubules containing lots of calcium the Endoplasmic reticulum of the muscle fiber Terminal Cisternae enlargements of the sarcoplasmic reticulum two of these along a transverse tubule Triad o Sarcomere Structure smallest functional unit of skeletal muscle Striation comes from the shaded areas thick and thin myofilament what myofibrils are made out of ZdiscZlines borders of the sarcomeres in the middle of the thin filament attachment of the thin filament Mline Dark section of sarcomere made out of myosin where thick filaments attach forms midline that goes through middle of sarcomere M line I band the entire white area entirely made out of thin filament connectin proteins A band dark band in the middle of the sarcomere the entire thick area amp on the end overlapping thin filaments dark area made entirely of myosin Thin Myofilament sliding toward the center of the contromere I Made out of two rows of actin wrapped around each other Actin main protein of myofilaments look like strings of beads n Tropomyosin short thin twisted filament that covers the active sites of actin allows relaxation of the muscle changes position when muscles stimulated a Troponin stabilizes the other two attaches to actin to anchor itself attaches to tropomyosin to hold it in place provides a binding site for calcium ions Neuromuscular Junction n this is where muscle muscle fiber and neuron talk to each other and the speech is chemical by releasing specific secretions as long as other is receptive to the secretion can El Neuron produces acetylcholine Ach which is a neurotransmitter attaches to receptors in motor end plate receptors open allow ion to enter and change potential across sarcolemma muscle impulse initiated As soon as Ach is released into the void called the synaptic cleft the muscle can contract Muscle impulse spreads through muscle fiber as long as ACh keeps gates open Arrangement of Skeletal Muscle Fibers El Circular fibers arranged around an opening functions to open or close a passageway Convergent attach to a particular bone triangular muscle attached to one point direction of pull can be changed pectoralis major Parallel Fascicles parallel to long axis of muscle body increases when contracted Unipennate arrangement around a tendon on one side of the tendon Bipennate arrangement around a tendon on two sides of the tendon Multipennate arrangement around a tendon on many sides of the tendon Origin the fixed end of the skeletal muscle bone cartilage Insertion attachment of the movable end of the skeletal muscle to another structure For each muscle will need to know origin insertion action motor nerve that stimulates it 0 Gross anatomy of skeletal Muscles o Biceps Brachii Origin long head supraglenoid tubercle short head coracoid process Insertion radial tuberosity Action flexes the arm at should joint flexes forearm at elbow joint supination of forearm Innervation musculocutaneous nerve HOMEWORK ACTIONS OF MUSCLES EBOOK CH 9 TABLE 92 CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS amp DIAGRAM List of Muscles 1 Muscles of the Head and Neck 0 Superficial o Frontal belly of occipitofrontalis o Orbicularis oculi o Orbicularis oris Deep 10915 1226 AM o Temporalis Action this amp masseter responsible for chewing o Masseter o Sternocleidomastoid 2 Muscles of the Trunk Superficial 0 External Oblique Deep 0 Internal amp External Intercostals o Rectus Abdominis 0 Transverse Abdominis 0 Internal Oblique Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle Superficial o Trapezius Deep 0 Pectoralis Minor 0 Serratus Anterior Muscles that Move the Arm 0 Super cial o Deltoid o Pectoralis Major Muscles that Move the Forearm Superficial o Biceps Branchii Muscles that Move the Hand 0 Superficial o Brachioradialis o Flexor Carpi Radialis o Palmaris Longus Muscles that Move the Thigh Superficial o Adductor Longus o Gracilis Deep 0 Iliopsoas o Sartorius 8 Muscles that Move the Leg 0 Super cial o Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Vastus Lateralis Vastus Medialis Vastus Intermedius DEEP TO RECTUS FEMORIS 9 Muscles that Move the Foot 0 Super cial o Fibularis Longus o Tibialis Anterior o Extensor Digitorum Longus