Bio 110 Week 8 Notes
Bio 110 Week 8 Notes BIOL 110 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Angelina Notetaker on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 110 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Thomas L. Kennedy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Biology Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Bio 110 Week 8 Notes Unit 3 Diversity 0 Phylogenetic trees represent evolutionary relationships 0 Bacteria O Cyanobacteria O Sulfur bacteria 0 E coli 0 Archaea 0 Protists 0 Volvox 0 Diatom 0 Choano agellates 0 Fungus 0 Mushrooms 0 Lichens 0 Chytrid fungus 0 Animals 0 Plants Chapter 7 0 Introduction 0 Cells are the basic unit of life 0 Life began 3538 billion years ago 0 Life started out simple 0 The Rise of Eukaryotes I Oldest eukaryotic fossils 21 billion years 0 Origin of eukaryotes through endosymbiosis 0 Three Domains of life Based on genetics mm W Eukanfa a I t I Bacter1a Enhamaebae m cm ax 3 quot l 7 I Archaea m 5 am I Purple bacteria l1 7 Thempmmgamms39 Cyanc gg f K rapmdfc u quot 39 Pagansres O Prokaryotes llve JUSt about everywhere Flamecie a a T chnnomads 0 Search for life elsewhere Wmmaes Aquffax H V Micmsm a a Diplamonads 71 How to classify prokaryotes Common Ancestor 0 Humans like to classify things into discrete units Like lines on a map I But the classifications may not mean much I We classify animals into discrete species that works well for animals 0 It s complicates for bacteria Don t think of them as primitive O Asexual Reproduction I Involving or reproducing by reproductive processes as cell division spore formation fission or budding that do not involve the union of individuals or gametes 0 Lateral Gene Transfer I Refers to the transfer of genes between organisms in a manner other than traditional reproduction 0 Large Pangenome I Is the entire gene set of all strains of a species I It includes both genes present in all strains core genome and genes present only in some strains of a species variable genome I Core genome includes the genes present across all strains of a species 0 Rapid evolution and generation time 0 Differences in membranes DNA and Ribosomes 0 Diversity in Metabolism 0 How they obtain energy and resources from their environment 72 Prokaryote Metabolism 0 Extracting energy and resources from the environment 0 Animals must consume food not much metabolic variety 0 Bacteria can use many resources I Starts With adding hydrogen to carbon dioxide 0 C02 H2 I CH3OH Carbon Fixation O Chemoautrophs I The synthesis of organic compounds by bacteria or other living organisms using energy derived from reactions involving inorganic chemicals typically in the absence of sunlight I Make organic compounds from Carbon dioxide I Methanogens make methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas I Some bacteria can extract energy from Iron 0 Photoautrophs I Any organism that derives its energy for food synthesis from light and is capable of using carbon dioxide as its principal source of carbon I Make organic compounds from Carbon dioxide I Using the sun 73 Prokaryotes live in extreme environments Prokaryotes are everywhere 0 Psychrophiles Antarctica 0 An organism that permanently thrives at temperatures close to the freezing point of water that is devoid of temperature regulation 0 Dry valleys of the Antarctic that are drier than most tropical deserts 0 There are bacteria living on the rocks 0 Halophiles 0 An organism especially a microorganism which grows in or can tolerate saline conditions 0 Example1 I Dallol Volcano I Ethiopa I Large Salt deposits 0 Example 2 I Pink Salt Lakes California I Red brine is from halophilic Archaean I Expend energy to maintain osmotic balance 0 Thermophiles O A bacterium or other microorganism that grows best at higher than normal temperatures 0 Thermal Vents I Bacteria and Archaean live in water over 100 degrees Celsius 0 Example I Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park I Bactria and Archaean producing carotinoids make the orange color I Thermus Aquaticus Taq polymerase I Revolutionized genetics 74 Disease Causing bacteria TBC tuberculosis I Tuberculosis TB gt O Mycobacterium infects the lungs airborne 0 Causes lung damage 0 More common in impoverished places I Pertussis Whooping Cough 0 Extremely contagious 0 Some data I 1955 62876 cases m s I 1965 6799 I 2009 number of students without vaccinations tripled I 2012 48277 0 Current Whooping cough outbreaks tuberculous infection initial 2 in the right upper lobe formation of numerous cavities I Vaccinations prevent diseases gt 0 Acquired immune system Getting dirty is helpful I Vaccinations are safe 0 Are totally safe 0 The Wakefield study was fraudulent I He made up the data 0 Antibiotics O Cattle industry is using antibiotics 75 Beneficial Bacteria 0 Microbiome 0 There thousands of different bacteria living in and on you 0 Your body is mostly microbes I 10 trillion cells of you I 100 trillion microbes 0 What is a germ l l I 999 is a joke Many bacteria are beneficial Probiotics Improve our health Mice with Swagger 5 larger testes I Mice fed a diet of yogurt DESINFECTANT POUR LES MAINS TUE 9999 des CERMES 0000 59 mL 76 Prokaryotes and the search for ET 0 Biologically this thing made no sense I Search for life elsewhere 0 Mars 7 I Is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System I NASA s future missions to Mars 0 Enceladus I Is the sixthlargest moon of Saturn 0 Europa I One of Jupiter39s largest moons I NASA s mission to Europa 0 Titan I Is the largest moon of Saturn Liquid water on the surface Manned mission will be tricky The James Webb Space Telescope Finding exoplanets with life gt I A planet that orbits a star outside the so ar system 0000 77 Endosymbiosis gave rise to eukaryotes I Not quite Darwinian evolution 0 Has to sequence mitochondria DNA gather additional evidence 0 Major restructuring of cells 78 Eukaryotic cells are structurally complex 0 Mitochondria O A spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells containing genetic material and many enzymes important for cell metabolism including those responsible for the conversion of food to usable energy 0 Cell Nucleus 0 Endomembrane System 0 These membranes divide the cell into functional and structural compartments or organelles O In eukaryotes the organelles of the endomembrane system include the nuclear envelope the endoplasmic reticulum the Golgi apparatus lysosomes vacuoles vesicles peroxisomes and the cell membrane 0 Cyroskeleton O A microscopic network of protein filaments and tubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells giving them shape and coherence 0 Phagocytosis O the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans 79 Algae and Phytoplankton 0 Bases of food chain oxygen production 0 Diatoms O A singlecelled alga that has a cell wall of silica Many kinds are planktonic and extensive fossil deposits have been found 0 Algae to save us Themgae iofam Potential Biofuel a 39 I Is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum from prehistoric biological matter I Biofuels Monitoring IIEI E n eel Fieedfie Briten n it er in e 710 Malaria V v infected 7 reel Firet infeeterd Eeeene infected mesquite meeeuite r Plieemedium gemeteey tee v i q Seeunel infeetee pereeu