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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorina Tomceac on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio107 at Washington State University Vancouver taught by Dr. Michel Berger in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see biology in Science at Washington State University Vancouver.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Biology 107 Chapter 9 lecture Cellular respiration O 90 O 90 If a disease were to destroy mitochondria in all living cells which group of organisms would be adversely affected Plants fungi animals Cellular respiration gt Organic compounds oxygen carbon dioxide water energy gt Exergonic reaction delta 6 686 kcalmol gt Energy stored in glucose is transferred to produce ATP gt Reaction is 40 efficient and 60 of the energy is released as heat Average human needs to consume 2200 kilocalories kcal perday Equivalent to 577g of glucose needed to produce enough ATP to maintain the human body for ones day Redox Reactions gt Oxidation loss of electrons gt Reduction gain of an electron is a reduction in the positive charge OIL RIG Glucose looses electrons Oxygen gains electrons as a terminal electron acceptor Stepwise process results n electrons loosing potential energy along the way At body temperature 37 C glucose is stable Enzymes lower activation energy Oxidative phosphorylation uses electrons as energy source to synthesize ATP NAD nicotinamide adeine dinucleotide High electron acceptor Works as an oxidizing agent during respiration gt Electron transport chain is used t slowly transfer energy Series of stepwise reactions controlled release of energy for synthesis of ATP gt Aerobic respiration Oxygen required High ATP yields 36 ATP gt Anaerobic respiration No oxygen required Ex Fermentation Low ATP yields 2 ATP per glucose molecule 3 Stages of cellular respiration 1 Glycolysis the catalysis of glucose in the cytoplasm a Occurs in cytoplasm b Produces pyruvate c 2 ATP are produced d substrate level production 0 2 phases o Energy investment phase 2 ATP used and 4 ATP were formed o Energy payoff phase 2 NADH and 2 pyruvate are produced gt Glucosel 2 pyruvate 2 H2O gt 4ATP formed 2 ATP used 2 ATP VVVVV V gt 2NAD4e394H 2 Citric acid cycle a Occurs in mitochondrion I Pyruvate is modi ed into Acetyl CoA ii Carboxyl group is removed decarboxylation and releases carbon dioxide iii NAD gets reduced to NADH iv Oxidation of pyruvate v Produces NADH and FADH2 vi Coenzyme A is attached by an unstable bond o Pyruvate is broken down into 3 C02 and 1 ATP per turn is produced 4 NADH 1 FADH2 avin adenine dinucleotide gt gt gt gt gt gt used in the big energy payoff during oxidative phosphorylation total of eight steps 8 catalytic enzymes end product of cycleoxaloacetate is bound to a 2 carbon acetyl group forming citrate citrate is oxidized in a series of steps higheredmheducationcom which molecule transports electrons when glucose is oxidized NADH 3 Oxidative phosphorylation o Electron transport chain i lnner membrane of the mitochondria in eukaryotes 10005 of copies of chains in mitochondria ii series of 4 multiprotein complexes iii prosthetic groups bound to multiproetien complexes essential for enzyme function Electrons are transferred to FMN Electrons are passed to FES FMN returns to its oxidized state FES passes electron to QUbiquinoine not a protein and mobile Remaining electron carriers are cytochromes Prosthetic grouo contains an iron atom that accepts and donates electrons Cyt a3 passes the electron to oxygen Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor Combines with H to form H20 FADH2 add electrons at complex II o Chemiosmosis Use of a H gradient to drive ADP phosphorylation via ATP synthase Electrons transferred from NADH and FADH2 pump H across the membrane Proton motive forces generates ATP synthesis ATP synthase o Multisubunit complex with 4 parts 0 Protons bind to rotator Change in shape spins the rotor Catalytic knob phosphorylates ADP to ATP Prokaryotes generate H gradients across their plasma membrane gt Some drugs known as uncouplers facilitate diffusion of protons across the mitochondrial membrane When such a drug is added what will happen to ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption ATP synthesis will decrease oxygen consumption will increase gt To sustain high rates of gycoysis under anaerobic conditions cells require NAD o3 Anaerobic Respiration gt Some prokaryotes use an electron transport chain with other eectronegative moecuesnot oxygen as the nal electron acceptor gt Sulfate reducing bacteria uses sulfate 504239 Hydrogen sulfideH2 is produced compared to H20 gt Fermentation NAD accepts electrons during the oxidation of glucose NADH must be recycled back to NAD NADH transfers electrons to pyruvates Alcohol Fermentation 02 not used as a nal electron acceptor Some species can not survive in the presence of oxygen Glycolysis produces pyruvate Net output of 2 ATP Decarboxylation of pyruvate and release of C02 actic Acid lactate fermentation Pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to form lactate Regenerates NAD No C02 is produced Cheeses and yogurt Human muscles make ATP by lactic acid fermentation O2 is limiting Accumulated lactate converted to pyruvate by liver cells Most organism do not directly consume glucose Most organic molecules can be used to fuel respiration Proteins Amine group is deaminated Nitrogenous waste is removed Respiration regulation gt Feedback inhibition Driven by quotsupply and demandquot gt Phosphofructokinase Enzymatic reaction that commits substrate to remainder of glycolytic pathway 0 quotpoint of no returnquot allosteric enzyme rVVVVVV VVVVVVVVV 0 ATP and citrate inhibits AMP stimulates Citrate inhibition helps synchronize glycolysis with citric acid cycle