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Psych 105 week 7 notes

by: JustAnotherStudent

Psych 105 week 7 notes Psych 105- Intro to Psycholgy

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Here are the typed and organized notes for everything covered in week 7, mix of lecture notes and book
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by JustAnotherStudent on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 105- Intro to Psycholgy at Washington State University taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 105 in Psychlogy at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 10/08/15
Psych 105 17022015 Week 6 TesT QuesTion OrienT x3 is orienTing To The Time The pldce dnd orienTing To who you ore Who ore you where ore you when is if Q o QuesTions 0 None 0 AnnouncemenTs 0 None 0 Grdndmd o OrienT x3 0 Memory TesT Te obouT recenT evenT dnd bring if dek IdTer dslt Time reldTed o Chunking XFLGKSJAOWOEKDFJ o XFLG KSJA OWOE KDFJ o BesT for irreevonT info dnd mdltes if more mdndgedble Hierdrchy A few brood concest divided inTo smdll concest dnd fdcTs Subdivided inTo even ndrrower concest dnd fdcT Orgdnioniondl Encoding Applied To STudying de dTTenTion To 0 OuTIines o Heddings 9 Preview quesTions dnd summdries o Self TesT quesTions The briefesT from of memory sforage Sensory Memory gt The immedidTe iniTidl recording of sensory infordeion in The memory sysTem AudiTory o durdTion d few seconds 0 Exomple IdsT few words of d senTence Visuol iconic memory 0 DemonsTrdTion Sperlings phoTogrdphic recoII TesT o DurdTion Less Thdn 0 second Why o If your brdin decides if The info is relevonT Tth s why if you hedr your home dcross The room your dTTenTion is grdbbed gt Sperlings Iconic Memory ExperimenT Sperling fldshed The eTTers in on 0 screen for i2Oih of 0 second ImmedidTer offer The screen wenT bldnlt he sounded 0 Tone A high medium or low piTch Tone signdled The row The pdrTicipdnTs were supposed To reporT o Recoil for The eTTers in 0 row wos dlmosT perfecT o How con we expldin This thT hoppens when The Tone sounds 0 When The Tone sounds righT offer The picTure is fldshed we hove Time To reTrieve The eTTers from iconic memory st The durdTion of shorT Term memory gt LimiTed durdTion dfTer Three seconds only 50 is recoIIed dnd offer 12 seconds noThing is remembered st The copociTy of memory gt ShorT Term memory LimiTed copociTy seven biTs of info con be sTored 2 miller i956 Recoil is beTTer from rdndom digiTs phone numbers Thdn for rdndom eTTers Also sligthy beTTer for wth we hedr Thdn wth we see WiThouT reheorsol mosT people con rerin dbouT 4 info chunllts in Their shorT Term memory gt Long Term memory UnlimiTed copociTy buT noT ds occurdTe ds occurdTe ds sensory memory or shorT Term memory Orgdnizes dnd sTores info Info noT sTored in precise locoTions DurdTion of memory sTordge ThoughT by some To be permdnenT gt Long Term poTenTidTion LTP A neurdl bdsis for Iedrning dnd remembering ossocidTions Synopses become more efficienT dT TrdnsmiTTing messoges dnd Incredsed efficiency in The synopse Iedds To more efficienT neurdl circuiTs To TesT This The dpldsid sed slug wos cldssicolly condiTioned To wiThdrdw iTs gill when shoT dT wiTh 0 oner pick 0 Through experience The slug wiThdrew iTs gill more quickly 0 More seroTonin wos found in iTs synopse o thT wos occurring STrengThen of neurdl firing dlso colled long Term poTenTidTion LTP LTP is o physicol bosis for memory 0 LTP Blocking drugs inlerfere wilh memory 0 Mice lhol lock on enzyme needed for LTP connol novigole lhe moze o lnjec ring rols wilh o chemicol lhol bloclts LTP eroses recenl leorning o Rois lhol inges r on LTP enhoncing drug Ieorn o moze wilh hove lhe usuolly number of mislolltes st Emotion and Memory gt Excilemenl slress or slrong emo rion con slrenglhen memories Slronger memory in response To emolionol siluolions is odoplive Emolion lriggered slress hormones increose glucose produclion which signols To The broin lhol somelhing imporlonl hoppened The omygdolo boosls oclivily ond proleins in The broin s memory oreos gt Floshbulb memories Floshbulb memories ore cleor deloiled memories of emolionolly significonl evenls How do such memories gel encoded Whol porls of lhe broin ore involved 0 Amygdolo ii goes inlo survivol mode gt Emolionol Memory Con be persislenl Heighlens lhe body s slress response Spurs produclion of lhe slress hormones odrenoline ond corlisol Con be 0 key symplom of PTSD Experimenlol lreolmenls include drugs To block memory gt Explicil or declorolive memory Processed in The hippocompus Memory of focls ond generol ltnowledge Memory or personolly experienced evenls Memory lhol con be consciously recolled Amnesio polienl HM wos unoble To form new explici r memories He couldn l recoll new evenls or focls in his life such os spending Time on lessons wilh reseorchers o Semolic Memory 9 Focls ond generol lltnowledge gt You con ltnow lhol lhere ore 5 colours of sltillels wilhoul ocluolly eoling Them 0 Episodic Memory 9 Personolly experienced evenls gt Knowing lhol dry ice burns gt lmplicif non decldrdfive Memory Refenfion independenf of conscious recollecfion Processed by cerebellum dnd ofher brdin dreds Mofor dnd cognifive skills Amnesid pdfienf HM refdined implicif memory He could ledrn new skills such ds copying d picfure using 0 mirror 0 Procedurdl Memory 9 Mofor dnd cognifive skills 0 Priming o Enhdnced idenfificofion of objecfs or words 0 Acfivofion of on exisfing memory by d sfimulus o The dcfinfion offen unconsciously of pdrficuldr ossocidfions in memory st Pdfienf HM Henry Moldison l926 2008 gt VVVV VV gt gt HM suffered from epilepfic seizures Af 27 he hdd pdrfs of his fempordl lobes removed fo prevenf seizures HM hdd explicif from before fhe surgery He could NOT remember whdf hoppened offer fhe surgery He could recognize himself of dge 27 in picfures buf he could nof recognize himself ds much older mdn yedrs ldfer HgtM losf explicif memory for evenfs fhdf hoppened offer fhe surgery Refdined implicif memories he performed normdlly on procedurdl memory dnd priming fdsllts This suggesfs fhdf explicif memories ore processed by fhe hippocompus lmplicif memories ore processed elsewhere in fhe broin st The Hippocompus VVVV gt Processes explicif memories for fdcf S 0nd episodes Feeds memories fo ofher brdin dreds for sfordge Pdrf of fhe limbic sysfem Acfive during slow wove sleep Hippocompus dnd fhe corfex displdy simulfdneous dcfivify during sleep st Cerebellum gt gt gt Crucidl fhe formdfion of implicif memories Pldys key role in forming dnd sforing memories credfed by cldssicol condifioning dedge fo cerebellum disrupfs forming condifioned reflexes st Amnesia gt gt Refrogrdde indbilify fo dccess memory before 0 cerfdin ddfe Anferogrdde lndbilify fo form or consoliddfe new memories offer 0 cerfdin ddfe 19022015 Psych 105 Week 7 2402 l 5 Announcements Writing assignment 2 is due Thursday emailed to your TA by 5pm 62 Hey girl My notes are pretty straight fonNard and I do not really use abbreviations if I do there will be the actual word next to it once If you see anything it s a vocab wordbolded on the slide 2 st Decisions and Judgements gt Decision making models Single feature AddiTive Elimination Using and misusing heuristics judging The likelihood of Things in Terms of how well The match or represent particular leads us to ignore relevant information basing The likelihood of Things based on availability of similar events in memory Leads us to mistalltenly judge how common Things may be 0 Chart on screen 9 Auto accident 1 in 6029 9 Terror attack 1 in 97798 gt Still more likely to worry about a terrorist attack Further Pitfalls searching for info that supports our preconceptions and to ignore distort contradictory info 0 People who believe in bigfoot will grasp any crazy blurry photo and swear up and down all day bigfoot exists overestimating the accuracy of our own knowledge 0 Knowing that you did amazing on a testand fail clinging to one s initial conceptions even after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited 0 Someone who know how virus s work but believes that you will get sick when you go outside with wet hair Problem solving decisions judgments Additional influences lntuition coming to an effortless conclusion or making judgement without conscious awareness of a thought process 0 Enables quick reactions which have been found to be based on expertise 0 When amounting to over feeling or under thinking can be based on gut fears or prejudice 9 Long story short farmer goes and checks methane tank since the meter was wonky the farmer went in and died His wife went to look for him since he was late for dinner saw him in tank climbed in died same went for the son methane is smelly colourless gas and the tanks have warning not to jump in Framing effects how an issue is presented or framed an significantly affect thought processes judgments and decisions 0 Which sounds better ground beef that is 75 lean or ground beef that has 25 fat 9 They are the same thing st Animals and language gt Animals clearly demonstrate abilities that involve thinking and communicating gt Chimps have learned to communicate with humans have passed on communication skills to their young and have demonstrated at least an elementary understanding on syntax gt Non primate animals have also acquired limited aspects of language TRUE OR FALSEHOOD The balling infant at 4 months of age makes it clearweather the infant is French Korean or Ethiopian o FALSE Some people can write but not read 0 TRUE Ivlany bilinguals report that they have different senses of self depending on which language they are using c TRUE Honey bees do a dance to communicate the direction and distance of a new food source to other bees o TRUE Apes are capable of communicating meaning by using symbols 0 TRUE st Language 0 gt gt Our spoken wriTTen or signed words and The ways we combine Them as we Think and communicaTe Through language we Transfer meaning from one mind To onoTher CommunicaTing day To day Transferring accumulaTed knowledge Across generoTions How do you define lanauaae communicaTion If you see a friend 100 yards away on campus walking Toward you how do you communicaTe wiTh himher o Yell wave Throw someThing TexT smile How would your communicaTion change if heshe was iOfT away 0 Poke whisper TexT WhaT gives you clues as To your friend s mood or inTenTions Verbal Communicafion gt gt gt Speech Word choice Vocal Tone piTch Nonverbal Communicafion gt gt gt gt WriTing TexTing GesTures Sign language processed in The same parT of The brain as spoken language Facial expressions amp Body language Processed in old parT of The brain ThaT helps you realise if someone is a ThreaT or noT Language Characferisfics gt gt gt Follow specific rules in a highly sTrucTured sysTem CreaTive or generaTive an infiniTe number of phrases and senTences can be generaTed Possess The possibiliTy of displacemenT or communicaTing abouT Things ideas eTc Tth are noT physically presenT Symbols are required for wriTTen language or sign language Phonological rules indicaTe how phonemes can be compiled To produce sounds o Phoneme individual speech sound eg ee in feeT Morphological rules indicaTe how morphemes can be combined To produce rules O O o Morpheme smallest meaningful unit of language can be prefixes suffixes or words eg Grammar set rules that specify how units of language can be meaningful combined 0 I ate the pizza 0 The pizza ate Language Acquisition gt Behaviourist Explanation 39 BF skinner language is acquired through familiar principals of operant learning 0 of the sights of things with sounds of words 0 of the words and syntax modelled by others 0 with smiles hugs when something is said incorrectly gt Nativist explanation Human brains are equipped with a language acquisition device LAD that facilitates the learning of language Universal language underlies human language it provides children with an innate understanding of how words are combined in an appropriate structure and order gt Interactionists Explanation Children s brains are pre weird with structures for language Language is actively taught as part of nurturing and socialization First we see basic social skills emerge eye contact smiling response to vocal tonel When spoken language starts to develop it is encourages through play modelled and reinforced by caregivers and family Language A Neurological Perspective gt Language processing becomes concentrated in two brain regions 39 involved in language production involved in language comprehension 0 Close to the ear When you have damage to one of those areas it s called Language Development Critiical Periods gt Childhood is critical period for learning language if language and speech are not used then the neurons which support these skills become pruned gt Language acquisition of a first language is very difficult after age 7 and nearly impossible after age 13 gt Second language learning more difficult once adolescence begins aphada st Thinking and Language gt Cognilion and language are inex rricably linked gt Language gives you a slruciure To organize share and remember your lhoughls How learning To speak a new language a good example of This st Linguisiic Delerminism gt Whorf language ilself shapes a man s basic idea Will conlinue nexl class Psych 105 Week 2 200115 amp 220115 STeps To The scienTific meThod 1 FormulaTe a TesTable hypoThesis a Took Two research auesTions and paired Them down To TesTable hypoThesis lasT class i specific informed and TesTable predicTion abouT The ouTcome in a research design 1 A TenTaTive sTaTemenT abouT The relaTionship beTween Two or more variables ii A facTor ThaT can varychange in ways ThaT can be observedmeasured 1 Things ThaT you re manipulaTingobserving n your research iii HypoThesis predicT change in variables 2 Design The sTudy and coecT The daTa a MusT decide whaT Type of design you ll use i observingdescribing behaviour ii deliberaTely manipulaTing one facTor To show ThaT one variable affecTs anoTher iii COLLECT if we do someThing and noT coecT daTa if is noT an experimenT buT an inTervenTion 3 Analyse The daTa and draw conclusions a 95 accuracy is whaT we are looking for in social science 1 maThemaTics used by researchers To organize summarize inTerpreT daTa maThemaTical indicaTion ThaT resulTs did noT lilltely occur by chance 1 If if is if supporTs The hypoThesisl iii pooling The resulTs from mulTiple sTudies info a single analysis 4 ReporT The findings a Even if you fail Terribly This way oTher don T have To go Through The same problems you did b Publish reporT MusT describe sTudies accuraTely repeaT The sTudy To increase confidence in findings 90 Buildina Theories tentative explanation that tries to integrate various findingobservations into one explanations Theories are not absolute Have not been wrong so far a They change with sciencenew evidence o Create a current coherent picture Theories can all be challenged Research Strategies strategies for observing and describing Naturalistic observation 0 Case studies Surveys Correlational methods strategies for inferring cause and effect relationships among variables Correlation and causation are not the same Interview and survey 0 Involves asking people questions about what they think or feel or how they behave Questions are asked the same exact way to each respondent 0 Additional limitations o Ivlay not have a representative sample Correlational Studies a studies that measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another a Correltiion not the slime as causationllllll a statistic ranging from i to i that assesses the strength and direction of an association of two variable o one goes up the other goes up As one increases the other increases As one decreases the other decreases o one goes up the other goes down As one variable goes up the other goes down As of ciggs goes up health goes down Causality mistaltes o The more firemen fighting a fire the bigger the fire is observed to be Therefore firemen cause fire o incorreclly sldling lhdl on effecl occurs before ils couse 0 As ice credm soles incredse lhe role of drowning dedlhs incredses shdrply Therefore ice credm couses drowning 0 Third variable inlerfdce off 0 lhird voridble Experimenldl sludies d resedrch design lhdl includes independenl dnd dependdnl voridbles 0 One voridble is monipuldled while dnolher is medsured wilh effecls indicolive of cousolions o Pdrlicipdnl ore rdndomly ossigned lo conlrol lhe experimenldl groups Benefils 0 Con infer couse Limildlions o Resulls come from 0 highly conlrolled usudlly unndlurol selling dnd ore lherefore less generdlizoble or properly lhdl is monipuldled by lhe experimenler under conlrolled condilioned lo delermine whelher il couses lhe predicled oulcome lhe oulcome or response lo lhe experimenldl monipuldlion Try lo llteep lhem sepdrdle o d voridble whose influence on lhe DV connol be sepdrdled from lhe lV lhings lhdl mess up your sludy for you wilhoul you hdving lo do onylhingex when lhere ore concer sludies lhdl you hove lo hove 0 very specific concer of d cerldin sldge polienls doclors fdmilies elc Lie dboul where lhey ore so lhey con gel polenlidl lredlmenl o melhod used lo ossign lhe pdrlicipdnls lo differenl resedrch condilions so lhdl dll pdrlicipdnls hove lhe some chdnce of being in dny group 0 Limils lhe impdcl of confounding voridbles o A group of pdrlicipdnls who receive 0 lhe lredlmenl or wholever is predicled lo chdnge behdviour o 0 group of pdrlicipdnls who ore lredled lhe exocl some ds lhose in lhe experimenldl group bul ore nol subjecl lo lredlmenl of lhe independenl voridble o Mdy receive pldcebo Any lltnowledge lhdl pdrlicipdnls 0nd or experimenlers hove dboul lhe experimenldl condilions lo which lhe pdrlicipdnls hove been ossigned con offecl lhe oulcome lo lhe experimenl sludies in wish pdrlicipdnls do nol ltnow lhere group ossignmenl sludies in which bolh lhe pdrlicipdnls dnd lhe experimenlers do nol ltnow lhe pdrlicipdnls group ossignmenls Psvcholodv ond EThics Reseorch o Helsinki occords following world wor 2 o BelmonT ReporT o Humon subjecTs guidelines 0 NoT lows guidelines 0 IRB InTernoI Review Boord o Composed of knowledge peers ocross deporTmenTs ond communiTy members To review reseorch proposols ocTive reseorch ond The resuTs of reseorch WSU s IRB link ovoiloble online To oll sTudenTs APAAmericon Psychologicol AssocioTion o IncorporoTed in 1925 o CreoTed o commiTTee To deol privoTer wiTh comploinTs of uneThicoI conducT in 1938 o FirsT version of The APA EThics Code wos published in 1953 0 Revised mony Times 9 ond counTing since Then Reseorch wiTh Humons l Informed ConsenT o WhoT The sTudy is obouT b WhoT porTiciponTs will do c How long iT will Tollte d Risks ond benefiTs e Who To conTocT wiTh quesTions f WiThdrowol is possible oT ony Time g Requires signoTure of oduITs ond ego guordions for minors 2 RespecT for persons 0 STudy musT sofeguord The digniTy ond ouTonomy of porTiciponTs b ExTro couTions musT be Tolten for speciol populoTions i Eg children ond prisoners 3 Beneficence o CosTs for porTiciponTs musT be minimised ond benefiTs moximized b DecepTion should be ovoided whenever possible c Welfore of The reseorch porTiciponT is The gool d STudy musT olso conTribuTe To beTTering socieTy 4 Privacy and confidenTialiTV 0 Response ore ltepT confidenTioI b PorTiciponTs idenTiTies ore noT linlted To Their response 5 JusTice o BenefiTs ond cosT musT be disTribuTed equolly omong porTiciponTs Reseorch wiTh onimols 0 Highly conTroversiol o Animols connoT dive consenT The Tuslltedee Syphilis Proiecl st originally supposed lo losl l yedr bul lhey liked lhe ddld so lhey lltepl il going No one lived longer lhdn 3 yedrs ln lhe 1940 s lhey discovered lhdl penicillin wos d gredl cure for syphilis 0 There were lhose wilh were slill in lhe experimenl This wos ended in lhe 1970 s when exposed ln lhe 1990 s Clinlon publicolly opologized for lhe sludy Toddy lhe governmenl is slill pdying for lhe medicol core of lhe fdmily of lhose pdrlicipdnls due lo lhe spredd of lhe disedse Sldnford Prison Experimenl i970 s Sludy held in psychology bdsemenls of Sldnford universily How people respond lo 0 cruel environmenl when lhere is no rules Rondomly chosen who wos guords dnd who wos prisoners 0 They chose lhe mosl normdl form lhe psychologicol exom lolten in lhe beginning The prisoners where mock drresled booked blind folded slripped ndlted pul in d smock dnd onlltle chdined Only colled by s No body slopped lhe guords from whdl lhey chose lo do 0 Guords sldrled lo dclu0y see lhe prisoners ds dongerous individuols Guords begdn lo humilidle lhe prisoners wilh slrdnger dnd slrdnger losllts o If lhe ldbles would hove been lurned lhen lhe guords would hove been lhe prisoners dnd vice d verso So lhe guords ltnew lhdl lhe prisoners redlly didn l do onylhing bul lhe power role wos loo much This losled 6 ddys o The only redson il slopped wos becouse DrZimbdrdo wos doling d psychology grdd sludenl Mildrdm Obedience Experimenl Experimenl on humdn behdyiour 0 Blind obedience lo dulhorily Shock obedience experimenl 0 Row of bullon lhdl one person would inflicl on dnolher shock volldge o st origindlly lhoughl lhdl lhere wos some hordwire issues wilh lhe Germdn people However lhe experimenl never mode il lo Germdnyil didn l hove lo There wos only one redl pdrlicipdnl The viclim ltnew dboul lhe experimenl dnd wos cooched lo onswer wrongly dnd oppose lhe shoclt dl cerldin volldges The only dulhorily figure wos in 0 while lob cool 0 The resedrch ossisldnl in lhe lob cool would lell lhe dcludl pdrlicipdnl lhdl il is essenlidl lo conlinue dnd lhdl lhough lhe shoclt hurl il wos nol dongerousregdrdless of lhe poin from lhe olher person Keep in mind lhdl mdny of lhe pdrlicipdnls lefl ds soon ds lhey sow lhe shoclt mochine dnd sel up Harlow Monkey Experiment Monkey orphan separated from mother at birth The monkey only had a soft cloth mother that got cleaned once a day Studied love because he thought it made an important impact on life Monkey got to choose between wired mother that feds it and a cloth mother that provides comfort and warmth 0 Monkey chose wire at first but then chose cloth and stayed for 18hrs They scared the baby monkey to see what it would choose The baby monkey chose the cloth mother When monkey has been raised alone when scared the baby sti stayed aone instead of going to the cloth Important things to know form chapter 1 Major experiments perspectives and schools people Research concepts and definitions 0 Know your independent and dependent variables theory is different than hypothesis sample vs population different experiments from text book Chapter 2 The Nervous System Biological psychology many types behavioural neuroscience neuropsychologists behaviour genetics neuro psychologist The Neuron The Synapse ml 1 Cell body soma nucleus with chromosomes Dendrites receive info from the other cells Axon transmits info to other neurons muscles and glands Myelin sheath insulator made of oigodendrocytes a gia cell Nodes of Romfer Structure of a Typical Neuron Dendrite Axon terminal 1quot t V 3V xxs g yg Cell body l 1 V Iquot lt lt 39 fN Node of Rang 4K t Schwann cell Myelin sheath Junction between one neuron s axon and another s dendritescell body it Neurotransmitters cross the synapse Plays a fundamental role in the communication between neurons Nucleus Types of Neurons Sensory Interneurons Motor Action Potential Electrical charge gathered by dendrites and cell body ElecTrical charge Travels down The axon To synapse STimulaTes The release of neuroTransmiTTers inTo synapse Occurs only when elecTrical signal is aT a cerTain level Threshold 0 All or none elecTrical implse is The same no maTTer how much sTimulaTion The neuron receives 0 Neuron reTurns To resTing sTaTe afTer elecTrical charge is TransmiTTed ElecTrical CommunicaTion 4 sTages Peak action potential 30 T ResTing poTenTial 2 DepolarizaTion 3 AcTion poTenTial 4 RepolarizaTion Repolariza lion Threshold of excita lion Hy p erpolarizaliorl Membrane potential HIV Reeling potential Time The refecTory period 0 The Time following an acTion poTenTial AnoTher acTion poTenTial canT occur during The refecTory period AfTer The acTion poTenTial Week 8 030315 Good Morning 0 Exam Thursday Ch 567 0 Classical and operanT condiTioning page an angel Two of The larger auesTions come from ThoseChecllt Them OUT 0 MulTiple choice a 42 quesTions 2 of which are exTra crediT o MidTerm grades soon 0 Review 0 QuesTions o OTher announcemenTs We sTarTed chapTer 8 lasT Thursday so I am adding To Those noTes ChapTer 8 MoTivaTion A need or desire ThaT energizes and direcTs behaviour Biological CogniTive Social EmoTional 2500 CharacTerises of moTivaTion 9 The iniTiaTion or producTion of behaviour 9 conTinued efforTs or deTerminaTion To achieve goal 9 M greaTer vigour in responding ofTen accompanying moTivaTed behaviour 0 Psych 328 self conTrol lnTrinsic moTivaTion I did iT because I wanTed To Extrinsic moTivaTion I love learning buT l wanTed ThaT diploma Approach motivation A motivation to experience a positive outcome Avoidance motivation A motivation not to experience a negative outcome Theories of motivation Instinct Theories and Evolutionary Explanations A complex behaviour that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unearned Instinct theo Certain human behaviours are innate and due to evolutionary programming Drive and Incentive Theories The tendency to maintain a balanced or constant state Positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour Positive when you wake up and want to go work out Negative waking up cold and wanting to get warm Two Theories of Motivation Arousal Theories Arousal theory view that people are motivated to maintain a level of arousal that is optimal neither too high nor too low Low arousal boredom motivation for stimulation High arousal9overstimulation9motivation for calm Additional Psychological Perspectives Selfdetermination Theory Selfdetermination theory SDT Optimal human functioning can occur only if psychological needs for autonomy competence and relatedness are satisfied Three needs that must be satisfied for psychological growth and success Autonomy Competence Relatedness Additional Psychological Perspectives Competence Motivation and Achievement Motivation Competence motivation striving to be capable and exercising control Achievement motivation Striving to excel and outperform others Additional Psychological Perspectives The Need to Belong and the Need to Avoid Shame The need to connect The level of rejection that bars your from being a part of a group That usually takes the form of shame Motivation behaviours are activated by a complex interaction of biological social and psychological factors Hunger and Energy Balance Enery Homeostasis intolte output of energy calories consumed match calories expended based off averages not accurate Positive energy balance weight gain Negative energy balance weight loss The Physiology of Hunger Body s preferred energy source Orexigenic signals tell the brain to switch on hunger Anorexigenic signals tell the brain to switch hunger off When glucose levels are low we feel hunger Appetite Hormones o manufactured by the stomach increased levels in brain strongly stimulate appetite and eating 0 produced by fat cells increased levels in brain regulate appetite and food intake Eating and Body Weight Overtime Set point predisposed weight Basal metabolism Rate BMR Calories burned at rest 100315 Week 9 The psychology of eating Four psychological factors of food intake Excess weight Factors that lead to being overweight Disruption of hunger hormones through lack of sleep Positive incentive value of highly palatable foods Over eating the supersize it syndrome Cafeteria diet effect variety leads to excess consumption Sedentary lifestyle The body mass index or BMI is one measure of weight status The BMI provides a single numerical value that represents your height in relation to your weight 1 Multiply yourweight in pounds by 703 2 Square your height in inches 3 Divide step i by step 2 this is your BMI a i84gt undenNeight b 185 to 249 healthy weight c 250 299 OvenNeight d 300lt Obese Eating Disorders binge eating followed by purging severe restriction of food intake due to fear of being fat PraderWilli genetic disorder always hungry never fu Shame Plus a brief review of in group vs out group How to be aware of ingroup and outgroup Ingroup Outgroup View other members as positive View members of ingroup negatively Agree with opinions of other group Intergroup interaction members despite personal disagreement When two groups meet Diffuse responsibility polarizationcompetition for group maintenance Helping others Integration Helping yourself Force of change common goalenemy Can be created over the smallest aspect M individual members cease of discernible difference identifying with the group Driven by appraisals of the self as worthless Characterized by 0 Wanting to disappear from view 0 Tactile sensation of burning itching numbness o Gastrointestinal upset 0 Thoughts about being a different kind of person 0 Tendency to be socially dysfunctional 0 Social avoidance aggression Shame Resiliency Easy way to shame males is to imply they are not manly Easy way to shame women imply they are not competentperfectthe right shape socially acceptable ect o Recognize and accept personal vulnerability 0 Be critically aware regarding socialculturalingroup expectations 0 Reach out to others support network 0 Speak shame discuss deconstruct Chapter 10 SexualityGender Some terms Biological Sex 0 Male or female 0 Based on genetic codereproductive organs Gender The cultural social psychological meaning associated with maleness or femaleness the behaviours attitudes personality traits roles that a cultural designates as masculine or feminine Sexual orientation direction of a person s eroticromantic attraction Gender roles Mendy stereotvm Men are expected to be masculine Women are expected to be more feminine Nature 0 Biologically bases Inevitable Unchanging Nurture o Learned Socially constructed Changeable Is it true that more women are stay at home parents WHY 0 Because women are born to raise children 0 Because women have been taught their roles is to raise children Social norms more support for the women w friends groups economic reasons since unfortunately men still make more money Not all women were born to raise children not all women are good at raising children 1970 s women movement you can have it all Is it really that good to have it all That much stress is not healthy Hard to be perfect when trying to do everything Gender is gt least partly learned and socigllv constructed Social construction of gender society and culture create gender roles Women s shavina o Introduced by shaving companies in 1920 s Title IX 0 Until the 70 s most women didn t play sports 0 When schools were forced to offer sports How glo we lemender roles Media 0 TV shows movies advertisements music Our parents 0 Parents treat boys differently than girls 0 toughen up and you re so beautiful 0 Looking at baby oh she s so pretty or he s so strong Schoob 0 Women are interrupted more than men 0 Faculty members make eye contact with male students more often than with female students 0 Faculty members are more likely to know and use the names of their male students than of female students 0 Women are often asked fewer and easier question than males This happens and people are aware of it Teachers have to take classes and are told about these things and told to try to avoid This happens at all levels of education Think about female students get expelled for fighting but males get a few days suspension How are gencjer roles maintained Gender policing 0 What would happen if a male wore a dress to class 0 Would you make more eye contact Probably not but you wuld probably look at him more 0 What happens if a women tries out for football o Professionalism 0 Social oslracism Double standards 0 Bachelor vs spinsler o Varies by cullure 0 Player vs slul o This is calming down forlunalely o A women slaps a man a man slaps a women 0 A women cries al a movie a man cries al a movie THIS IS BAD FOR BOTH MEN AND WOMEN Women are laughl 0 They re weaker and more delicale o Don l lake as many risks 0 Their appearance is The mosl imporlanl Thing 0 Self worlh comes from allracliveness ralher lhan compelence Men are laughl 0 They shouldn l be emolional o Sadness and fear oflen expressed as anger 0 They don l need olher people 0 Don l reach oul for The help They need How has lhis changed over lime Communicalion era communicalion is quick and easy Thanks To ce phonescompulureselc Gender lndelily is NOT sexual orienlalion Gender idenlily is o The degree To which a person sees himherself as masculine or feminine o Transgender person who s gender idenlily conflicls wilh biological sex 0 Transexual person who has under gone sex reassignmenl surgeryhormone lherapy lo lransform The body To The opposile sex Nol a lesbians are bulch Nol all gay men are effeminale We Think obouT sexual orienToTion in Terms of preference for parTners of o cerToin gender The Greeks didn T have The same concepT of sexual orienToTion sex was obouT power noT desire OUT cuITuroI conTexT shape how we Think obouT sexuoIiTy and sexual orienToTion Sexual orienfofion DirecTion of a person s eroTicromonTic oTTrocTion o HeTerosexuoIsTroighT o Homosexual 0 Gay 10 of men 0 Lesbian 4 of women 0 Bisexual orienToTion To boTh mole and female 0 Pansexuol regardless of persons gender idenTiTy blind To gender in a sense 0 Asexuol no oTTrocTion WhoT causes sexual oreifnofion IT s complicoTed really complicoTed read we don T really no for sure 0 Genes play some roles 0 Exposure To cerToin hormoones before birTh NOT dure To family problems SeT before adolescence Conversion Therapy oko praying The gay away doesn T work 0 WheTher iT s biological or social iT s noT a choice Sexual Fluidifv 0 Men s sexualiTy isn T Too fluid 0 They Tend To sToy The same forever 0 Women s sexuoIiTy IS 3 ways of ConcepTuoIizing SexuoIiTy l The Typology heTerosexuoI or homosexual 2 Kinseys conTinuum 0 6 3 Two dimensional schemes Some facts about sex Almost everyone fantasizes o More fantasies correlates with better sex life People aren t having as much as you think 0 35 of men 40 of women haven t had sex in the past year 0 Married peope have more sex then single person Average number of sexual partners lifetime 0 Men 7 0 Women 4 0 But it s going up What is sex Masters and Johnson Stage 1 Excitement Arousal raised pulse pupil dilation raised blood pressure breathing increases swelling of genital tissue penis vulva nipples harden Stage 2 Plateau Slight increase in those above vaginal lubrication seminal fluid lealltage Stage 3 Orgasm Peak of heart rateblood pressure contraction of vaginal musclesmuscles around penis ejaculation Stage 4 Resolution Arousal slowly subsides rafectory period prior to beincomg aroused agin Not the only way of studying sex but the most prevalent modle Sexual dysfunctions MUST be distressinq Hypooctive sexuol desire disorder low frequency of desire Sexual Aversion Disorder dnxiety ond feor over sexuol contdct chronic genitdl pdin before during or offer intercourse Erectile dysfunction indbility to dchieve erection when desired Premature e39aculation physicol orgosm prior to desire time indbility to dchieve orgosm involuntdry contrdction of vogindl discomfortpdin Paraghilia Sexuol grdtificdtion contingent on devidnt not sociolly dcceptoble sexuol behoviour W exposing genitdls to strongers m drousol to inonimdte objects or unusuol undenNedr shoes feet etc desire for children under 13 secretly observing someone while chdnging bothing etc m sexuol pleosure form inflicting pdin sexuol pleosure from feeling pdin


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