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Week 3 Lecture Notes (Research 1, Perception 1, Perception 2)

by: Denise Kaira Marquez

Week 3 Lecture Notes (Research 1, Perception 1, Perception 2) PSC 142

Marketplace > University of California - Davis > Psychlogy > PSC 142 > Week 3 Lecture Notes Research 1 Perception 1 Perception 2
Denise Kaira Marquez
GPA 3.4
Social and Personality Development
Anne Dunlea

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Hello PSC 100Y students! Online classes are challenging, but here are notes that might help. Remember, these are additional notes about the pictures and info. Please follow along with the lecture ...
Social and Personality Development
Anne Dunlea
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Denise Kaira Marquez on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 142 at University of California - Davis taught by Anne Dunlea in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Social and Personality Development in Psychlogy at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 10/09/15
Notes to go With PSC lOOY lecture slides These are additional notes about the pictures and info The number on the left corresponds to the lecture slide number Please follow along with the lecture slides These notes do NOT include all of the information that is already written on the lecture notes slides NOTES FOR RESREARCH 1 LECTURESQUIZ 2 Inferential The goal is to draw conclusions about a large population on the basis of a relatively small sample of that population However these are only probabilistic because the sample may not perfectly represent the whole population Insert equation here 250 Research Methods 1 8 Sample mean amp it s a descriptive statistic that describes the have value of the 8 subjects we tested The 200 students is the population 9 There are 2 factors that determine how well we can estimate the population mean from the sample mean 1 of subjects in the sample 2 The amount of variability among the subjects Research Methods 12 2 The variability in a sample is a key determinant of how well we can estimate the population mean form the sample mean How can we QUANTIFY the variability We look at how different each ind is from the average across the ind 4 Standard deviation different way of computing the degree of variability among subjects in a sample 5 With an N of 40 the population mean will almost always be quite close to the sample mean Research Methods 13 3 Null hypothesis is usually the hypothesis that we re trying to disprove Alternative is the opposite of the null This is the hypothesis is what we re trying to prove In general we try to disprove the null hypothesis and prove the alternative hypothesis When using a sample to draw conclusions about a population we can never be 100 certain that we have proven the alternative hypothesis If we have enough subjects amp low enough variability the standard statistical approach allows us to be 95 certain in our conclusions 5 False Positive the population mean really is at chance yet you are falsely concluding that it is above chance 12 When p is less than 05 we can reject the null hypothesis with strong confidence knowing that we will be wrong only 5 of the time but when p gt 05 we can only say that we don t have enough information 15 The goal of inferential statistics is to draw conclusions about populations not samples The goal of a onesample t test is to obtain evidence that the population mean is not equal to chance to reject the null hypothesis and accept the alt hypo Took no additional notes for the rest of Research Methods NOTES FOR PERCEPTION 1 LECTURESQUIZ Perception 11 Hair cells pick up sound Mechanoreceptors displacement of the skin Thermoreceptors change of temperature Our percept re ect an interaction b n several factors including external amp internal factors External factors that in uence the energy that is transduced by receptors Energy sources such as lights and sounds Object properties such as re ectance Env Properties such as walls that the walls bounce 0 of Laws of physics which determine how energy changes over time and space Receptor properties such as sensitivity to particular colors Algorithms and heuristics which process the raw sensory data into a more usable form Experience and knowledge which in uence how we classify sensory information External in uence the energy that is transduced by receptors Internal factors things inside of our brains that in uence how we construct a representation of the world based on the energy that hits our receptors Perception 12 Slide 2 The sun emits electromagnetic radiation that emits a broad range of wavelengths amp the amount of energy from each of them With the sun you get a range of the whole spectrum of visible light An incandescent light bulb uses a tungsten filament so it may also be called a tungsten light bulb see page 2 Slide 3 They use these to localize their prey so they can strike accurately In other words snakes use receptors to detect the heat signature of the animal they are going to strike This is related to the problem of other mindsquot that was discussed earlier in the course but here the issue is understanding the experiences of other species Slide 4 It doesn t have any light in the infared spectrum all the light it generates is in the visible part of the spectrum What s shown here is the distribution of light at different wave lengths Unlike sunlight which has an even amount of wavelengths or at least close to even for all wavelengths we get different peaks for all the wavelengths for the uorescent light bulb However we still perceive it as white These urescent light bulbs are more efficient amp last longer Slide 5 The fact that incandescent lights vs uorescent lights lead to different emission of electromagnetic radiation means that the light that is hitting you eye in a given room will depend on what kind of light is lighting up the room LEFT yellowred with more blue on the RIGHT side These rooms are much more different than we perceive because our brains have color constancy mechanisms When looking at a scene lit by incandescant light our visual system takes in energy from the whole scene and asks how much is there for each different wavelengthquot Slide 7 Our color constancy mechanisms factor out the lighting and allow us to see the scenes almost the same even though the actual distribution of light is very different Slide 8 ex The red apple absorbs the short and medium wavelengths but re ects long wavelengths Slide 9 Stable amp diagnostic properties are relatively constant over time amp can be used to identify an object ex The color orange of this orange shows us that this is an orange not a lemon The handle the razor this shape is diagnostic it tells us that this is a blender HOWEVER some properties are TEMPORARY amp not diagnostic These vary over time and do not tell us the identity of an object Perception 13 Slide 3 ex The hand occludes the baby Alison occludes the swimming pool etc Perception 14 Slide 2 Which says the intensity of a sound is proportional to one over the distance squared in our auditorious system to implement that physical law in terms of how we percieve the distance of sounds Slide 3 Edges of a shadow are slightly blurry wheras an actual object s edges are not blurrythis is how we tell the difference between an object amp a shadow Slide 5 They need to be next to the pigment epithelium The photoreceptors contain pigments which capture photons of lights which cause change in the release of neurotransmitter in photoreceptors After a pigment molecule captures a photon of light it ust can t work again until a retinal molecule can be regenerated and restore the pigment into working form Slide 7 Cone photoreceptors are used in normal daylight amp make it possible to see color Rods are used only in low levels of light like night they do not allow color vision Blue sensitive cones are sensitive to short wavelengths green sensitive to the intermediate red gives sensitivity of the long wavelengths of light ex Computer screen combines different intensities of red green amp blue light to create many colors Perception 15 Slide 2 ex Long division If you follow the rules you re guaranteed to get the right answer ex Visual image Covulution the image with a Gaussian impulse response function Slide 3 Heuristica sequence of operations that usually leads to the correct answer but sometimes fails Heuristics are faster than algorithms amp lead to the right answer most of the time But when perceptual heuristics fail they can lead to illusions Slide 4 The Ponzo Illusion is an example of the failure of a heuristic that uses distance information to help compute the size of an object Perception 16 Slide 2 Result of Heuristic visual system uses surrounding regions to make a judgement about the lightness of an obj ecthow well it re ects light Lightness property of an object how well it can re ect light which depends on physical properties of the surface The Simultaneous Contrast Illusions re ects the failure of a heuristic that tries to estimate the lightness overall re ectance of an object by using surrounding regions to factor out the contribution of the intensity of the lighting source Slide 3 Visual system allows us to perceive that the object itself is the same even thought the intensity of the source of illumination has changed ex Simulation of what would happen if outside amp the sun went behind a cloud Slide 4 The visual system has taken into account that the illumination has changed so that we can see that the lightness of the shirt has remained constant Slide 5 The S looks electric because our visual system is looking at the background as a shadow region thinking that the photons must be really strong in this region whereas on the left the illumination gives us a lot of photons Perception 17 Slide 3 The knowledge we have about the world the fact that we know THE is much more common than TAE tells us that the word is most likely THE Slide 6 Bayes Theorem gives us a formal way of talking about how we can combine top down knowledge with bottom up sensory information to draw inferences about what we are sensing among our many modalities NOTES FOR PERCEPTION 2 LECTURESQUIZ Perception 21 2 Classic idea the info that comes into our sensory receptors is improverished 1 Gibson shows that if you think very carefully there s a huge amount of info in the env Motion in particular provides a lot of info for visual perception 3 It s common to have lesion of area MT or area V5 in both the left and right hemisphere These patients have trouble with walking around a room or picking up a coffee cup on a table This is because we use motion for navigation and figuring out the space around us People with MT lesions in both hemispheres have issues with walking around the room and finding a door or picking up a coffee shop 4 Each pixel on the screen has a red green and blue value The Visual system must determine what is the foreground the background and the boundaries between them Uses cues such as motion 6 When seemingly hidden objects are put into motion they become easily distinguishable from the rest of the scene This segregates the foreground from the background Perception 22 2 If heading for the end of the landing strip the motion will dilate out away from that spot Perception 23 2 Motion parallaxthings appear to move faster than things that are farther away 3 ex 3 structure becomes easier to see when put in motion


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