Industrial Revolution and Market Revolution
Industrial Revolution and Market Revolution HY 325-001
Popular in US World Power to 1898
Popular in History
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HY 325-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steinbock-Pratt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see US World Power to 1898 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
1st Industrial Revolution and Market Revolution 0 Industrial Revolution 0 Factory and market system emerges o nventionspatentstechnology advances gt fuels economic development 0 Market Revolution 0 Switch from the market being an actual place to the market being an abstract economic idea Water Power Water mills were used to fuel factories o Factories thus had to be located along rivers in order to have access to running water 17905 water power began to be used more mainly in textile and sugar mills 0 Water wheels used to power machinery Samuel Slater o Slater Mill in Pawtucker MAs o Mechanized cotton mill I Water powered spindles for threading I Hired women and children for threading at home 1814 Boston Association company created textile mill factory system in Massachusetts 0 Centralized textile making under one roof I All textile making processes to be concentrated in one area rather than spread out in different houseslocations 0 quotLowell system because factory was in Lowell MA 0 Recruited young farm women as workers I Women lived in company boardinghouses I Higher wages than if were to work on farm I Work hardlong hours I quotLowell Mill Girls early female wage workers I These women were seen as temporary workers 0 Worked until they got married 0 1836 replace Lowell Mill Girls with immigrant women 0 2 reasons to this switch in work force I Lowell Mill Girls had gone on strike for higher wages o Immigrant women were less likely to unionize and strike and thus less likely to be disruptive to the work environment I Lowell Mill Girls were only temporary laborers o Immigrants were more permanent laborers which meant overall more profit for the company 0 Centralized factory system changed the way people worked 0 Change from cottage industries work at home to work in nonhome location 0 Work for wages and work was jobspecific 0 Factory work dictated by the clock while homefarm work was dictated by daylight and the seasons 0 Factory work had defined work and leisure times while homefarm work had work and leisure time mixed together 0 Factory worked began to identify by their classwage earnings lowerworkingmiddle while homefarm workers identified themselves by their craft Early market system 0 Surplus farm goods were sold in the side for extra money 0 Usually sold in local townsmarkets Over time people began to purposefully produce more goods so that they could devote the surplus for sale to gain more money 0 Began to sell surplus in larger markets from local to regional to national to international markets 0 Ex Butter 0 Butter was a farm job mostly for women 0 Extra butter sold in local market for extra money for women 0 1835 butter began to be sold in the international market I Revolution from a small scale market good to international market good Transportation 0 Steam gt used as a way to power engines 0 Water was heated and steam was produced pressure from the steam would build up and cause pistons in engines to move 0 With steam power factories need not be located along rivers 0 James Watt gt created 1st modern steam engine in 1769 0 Oliver Evans gt improved Watt s steam engine for better efficiency 0 Steam boats o Allowed for major changes in trade I Boats could travel faster gt fast trade more could occur I Robert Fulton 1st successful commercial steam boat Steam boats made upstream commerce possible 1819 1St American ship partially using steam power travels across the Atlantic 0 Canal building 0 Canals operate by a quotlockquot system Locks are located along a river and then openclose to regulate water flow and water level so that ships can more easily navigate through the river 0 Steam boats canals faster travel time and more trade occurring 0 Erie Canal Lake Erie to New York City I Towns sprung up along the path of the canal as new locations became pointsdestinations for trade ex Buffalo NY 0 Railroads 0 Early 1800s limited railroad construction 0 1830 Baltimore and Ohio company founded the 1St railroad in the US 0 18301833 construction of railroad line between Charleston SC and Hamburg SC I Rail line was used by steam powered locomotives o Heyday of railroad construction postCivil War era 0 Railroads were important because they linked commercially important places to facilitate and ease trade 0 Combined effect of canalssteamrailroads o Linked the US more closely I Allowed for better and faster communication I Easier business and leisure travel I Easier to move goods across the country I Time of transporttravel shrunk o Easier to travel to inland areas of the US 0 Breakdown of travel barriers US becomes more closely knit Antebellum Slavery o PostAmerican Revolution 0 Antislavery sentiment among the Founding Fathers 0 Tobacco prices declined gt tobacco seen as not being profitable anymore so less tobacco production would require less slaves seen as possible beginning of slavery ending 0 North passed antislavery legislation o In the South slavery was reinvigorated via the Industrial and Market Revolutions o Slavery reinvigoration o 1793 cotton gin Pre1793 cotton was done via small scale production and it was a slow process due to the manual labor required to pick cotton I Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin 0 Cotton gin works by separating cotton fibers from the bowel o Allowed for more cotton to be sold 0 Cotton became economically profitable I King Cotton I Cash crop 0 Cotton production mainly in the SouthSoutheast high levels of slavery 0 Cotton became the lynchpin of the South s economy I Later on became a lynchpin of the national economy 0 Cheap cotton exported up North and to other countries 0 Cheap cotton undercut Northern textile mills o 1808 Congress prohibited the slave trade 0 However the rate of natural increase among slaves in the US made up for the cessation of the African slave trade I Internal slave trade developed 0 Upper South sold slaves to Deep South where cotton production was booming so slaves were in high demand 0 Upper South recognized that slave selling could be a profitable business 0 Changes in transportation discussed earlier allowed for o easier and faster trade of slaves among southern states 0 Easier and faster trade of cotton 0 Regionally the South was defined by several key characteristics 0 Limited industrial growth as economy focused on cotton production 0 Less immigrants settled in the south they were instead attracted the industrial jobs up North 0 Less urban growth 0 New Orleans important tradeport city 0 Profitability of cotton made abolition hard to achieve in the South 0 1830s rise of the abolitionist movement in the North at the same time that proslavery views were hardening o Slaveryjustified in the south as a positive good and necessary evil 0 Positive Good John C Calhoun I Slavery safe and stable for free institutions I Jefferson was wrong in stating that all men are created equal I quotmaster paternalism 0 Master father figure 0 Slaves children 0 Talking about slavery in terms of family relationships was meant as a way to soften the perception of slavery I Bible used to justify and uphold slavery o Necessary evil I While slavery may be bad it is necessary for cotton production I Without cotton production the Southern economy would be ruined so slavery was a must in order for the South to stay economically alive 0 Abolition movement 0 William Garrison fervent abolitionist abolitionist newspaper The Liberator 0 Nat Turner Rebellion I Slave uprising that resulted in the death of several whites I Post VA past harsh slave codes 0 Any black person slave or free could not engage in readingbe taught how to read 0 Slaves could not hold religious meetings wo a white minister present 0 Fear that religious could be used to spur ideas of revolt 0 Some abolitionists the notion of abolition to the market revolution 0 wthe market revolution people were seen as commodities and wage labor was just another form of slavery I workers were subjected to the demands of the owner and were not in control of the economic prosperity 0 Henry David Thoreau I Walden gt antislavery text equated wage labor to slavery proself reliance 0 Frederick Douglass I Escaped black who spoke against slavery and lead abolitionist movement I Thought it wage labor was better than slavery 0 Better to be paid for work than to not be paid at all 0 Being paid for work shows that your work has value Key Words 0 Slater s Mill 0 Lowell Mill Girls 0 Factory System 0 Oliver Evans 0 Robert Fulton 0 Erie Canal 0 Eli Whitney 0 Cotton Gin 0 King Cotton 0 John C Calhoun 0 William Lloyd Garrison 0 American AntiSlavery Association 0 Nat Turner 0 Henry David Thoreau 0 Frederick Douglas
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