Chapter 5 Notes
Chapter 5 Notes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at Towson University taught by Dr. Girio-Herrera in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Chapter 5 Motivation and emotions catalyzes behavior Or causes our behavior is the tendency to desire and seek out positive incentives or rewards and to avoid negative outcomes h Instincts have evolved in humans to support survival and procreation 35 different innate instincts including the impulse to love ght imitate talk and acquire things 0 Arousal Theories there is an optimal level of arousal that everyone preforms best at Feeling sleepy is an example of under arousal Anxiety is an example of over arousal Some people prefer to have low arousal and others crave high arousal gtltPeople differ on their optimal level of arousal and situations also determine which arousal is preferredgtlt Humans need to feel competent autonomous and related to others Self motivated feeling compe ed t0 engage in certain behaviors The levels of physiological emotional cognitive and spiritual needs of humans 1 Physiological or biological needs such as hunger and thirst 2 Safety 3 The feelings of belonginglove 4 Esteem cognitive needs and aesthetic needs 5 Selfactualization 6 Need for transcendence gtltMost people cannot ful l enough needs on the lower levels of the pyramidgtlt Gandhi mother Teresa etc manage to ful ll lower levels and reach the top 0 Drivelerive Reduction Theories A drive results when our needs are not met Primary drives begin with recognition in the brain of a lack of ful llment of a speci c drive Negative feedback loop an information system that monitors the level of bodily processes Developed through the need for achievement af liation and understanding Fails to explain why we are motivated to increase tension or arousal Incentives goals or desires that you are motivated to ful ll can be intrinsic or extrinsic lntrinsic is from within Extrinsic is from outside Hunger Set point a weight that our body seeks to maintain Stomach When the stomach is empty the walls contact and release The stomach distends when we eat which allows us to know when we39ve eaten enough However when a balloon inserted into the stomach to distend it did not change how much food that individuals ate but did reduce the feelings of hunger Not hungry reduction in ghrelin curbing hunger When the reduction occurs normally the individuals had less anxiety and stress than others in which ghrelin did not reduce as quickly as normal Liver also signals hunger The liver converts excess into as well as the reverse Glue Glycogen Not Hungry Glycog gt Gluco Hungry gturceHs lf blood sugar drops we get hungry High glycemic foods do not keep our hunger satis ed for very long To feel full longer eat a low glycemic food The small intestines release which shuts off the urge to eat found in green vegetables increase the amount of CCK Fat cells secrete into the blood stream where it travels to in the brain where it informs the body of how much fat reserves you have Dopamine plays a role in mediating leptin action No body of evidence exists to support the notion that taking leptin will assist in losing weight In the that measure glucose levels in the bloodstream If the hypothalamus is not responsive to glucose then the glucoreceptors trick the brain into thinking it is critically low on fuel functions as for hunger If it is destroyed then no urge to eat exists causing the animal to starve to death unless force fed when force fed some appetite will return Serves as an for hunger outside of the LH Creates feelings of satiety if its destroyed the rats will eat and gain enormous amounts of weight Animal doesn39t eat until death but its set point changes A weight that the body strives to maintain If the VMH is destroyed then the control of the endocrine systems release of insulin is disturbed eating the motivated by physiological hunger and satiety feedback occurs for reasons other than supplying fuel for our bodies examples special occasions Eating to cope with emotional distress Intuitive eating lower BMI of 25299 is overweight a BMI of 30 is obese 23 of Americans are overweight and 13 are obese Overweight people tend to suffer from anxiety or depression fat stored particularly around the midsection is linked to the bodycentered symptoms of depression People who eat high calorie breakfasts lose more weight than people who eat high calorie dinners Being an evening type vs a morning type is associated with having a harder time losing weight The rate at which we burn energy in our bodies when resting alter our food intake and energy uses to conserve energy When we start losing weight our body urges us to eat and our basal metabolic rate may drop as the body tries to conserve energy To be successful you must change eating habits forever dietino is not temporarv In some countries obesity is beautiful to where young girls are typically force fed Mauritania Fear of negative appearance evaluations having a tendency to compare one39s appearance to the appearance of others Disorder De nition Typical Victim Other Bulimia Nervosa An eating disorder in which a person alternately binges on large quantities of food then engages in some inappropriate compensatory behavior to avoid weight gain A young female who is of average to slightly above average weight who tend to be perfectionists In a 12 Month period 1 to 15 of young females will have bulimia 4 of college age females have the disorder The frequent purging causes dehydration and electrolyte imbalances ls sometimes used to cope with anxiety and an emotional sense of no control Anorexia Nervosa An eating disorder characterized by selfstarvation intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted body image 1220 of young American females have anorexia over a 12 month period 4 of females have anorexia American women There is a theory that the genes for anorexia evolved to allow early humans to survive famine by ignoring food This is supported by the fact that if one twin is anorexic are least the other is likely satis ed with to develop the their bodies disorder Also it is common among mothers and daughters Binge eating An eating disorder Within a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating similar to bulimia however they do not compensate for their overeating 12month period 16 of adult females and 8 of adult males have binge eating disorder The motivation or interest in sexual activity A high state of sexual desire The to have sex it is affected by the hypothalamus and certain hormones such as which increase dramatically during Estrus coincides with ovulation if the released during ovulation is not fertilized the female will pass estrus and enter menstruation Physical changes occur during estrus are the organs that produce eggs and estrogen in females is a type of male hormone called an And is produced in of the male and the adrenal glands of females Decreased testosterone causes a decrease in libido is released during sexual activity and contributes to feelings of closeness is also released and contributes to the feelings of pleasure and reward Sexual desire is however not just biological it is also psychological Portions of the body that are sensitive to touch examples include the genitalia inner thighs breasts buttocks and more The rst stage of the sexual response cycle Males get an erection females produce lubrication Increase heart rate Blood pressure nipples may become erect and blood flow increases to the genitals the scrotal sack thickens the inner two thirds of the vagina thickens and the clitoris swells The peak of excitement breathing becomes rapid blood pressure and heart rate continue to rise some uid may appear on the tip of the penis full erection occurs vagina fully expands and the uterus elevates The pelvic and anal muscles contract breathing blood pressure and heart rate peak 80 different structures in a woman39s brain play a role in orgasm The contractions cause ejaculation when the body returns to normal occurs in males when they are unable to experience another orgasm after a rst one Variations in sexuality 80 of males and 65 of females have had sex in the past year Woman are having more partners at a younger age old people have sex Sexual orientation Ones sexual attraction to members of the same or different sex Hererosexual opposite sex Homosexual same sex Bisexual both sex Identity is who you feel you are Hereditary component in some case Some research shows that gender nonconforming behavior during childhood correlated with later homosexuality gay men have a greater number of older brothers Emotions Complex reaction Internal or external event Involves physiological reaction behavioral reactions facial expressions cognition and affective responses presentation Homophobia prejudice against homosexuals Emotions as a unique pattern of physiological arousal Physiological experience of emotion does not vary from emotion to emotion We can feel emotions before the physical What about arti cial physical responses Physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously Rejects the view that physical arousal alone leads to the emotion activation of a set of nerve impulses that make the face display the appropriate expression a theory that states that our emotional state is affected by the feedback our brain gets from our muscles Emotions are determined by a nonspeci c kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation Cognitive mediational theory Cognitive appraisal determines what emotion we will feel in the situation Mere exposure effect the idea that the more one is exposed to something the more someone enjoys it Basic emotions are considered the innate emotions that all humans share and that other emotions derive from Culturalsocial rules of when it is and isn39t appropriate to show various emotions
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