Chapter 6 PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at Towson University taught by Dr. Girio-Herrera in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Chapter 6 Learning A permanent change in behavior or potential behavior based on expedence The tendency of an organism to orient its senses towards unexpected stimuli You39re going to stop what you39re doing if you hear or feel something out of the ordinary Used to study infants What how long they observe or go toward something or kick The simplest form of learning it39s the tendency of an organism to ignore repeated stimuli without it you would never be able to function May protect us from sensory overload The inability to habituate may cause migraines Used to study infants Responding to a stimulus that has already been habituated Happens when The quality of the stimulus changes When time passes The balance of responding habituating and dishabituating at appropriate times Can help people overcome chronic motion sickness and other issues by repeating the stimuli gt Learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus causing the neutral to become conditioned and now have the same power as the unconditioned stimulus gtltTo condition an animal or person you have to begin with a natural stimulus and typically causes a response in the organismgtlt gtltThink training when you think conditioninggtlt Term Abbrievation ReactionStim De nition Example uus Unconditioned US Stimulus A stimulus Ex The food stimulus that naturally presented to and reliably the dogs evokes a response Unconditioned UR Response A response Ex The dogs Response naturally salivating evoked by the when unconditioned presented with stimulus food Neutral NS Stimulus A stimulus Ex The buzzer Stimulus that does not natural evoke the same response Conditioned CS Stimulus A stimulus Ex The stimulus that was once BuzzerAfter neutral that being paired now evokes a with food response Conditioned CR Response A response Ex Saivating Response caused by the at the sound Conditioned of the buzzer Stimulus without food Should be the same as the unconditioned response being present Conditioning Learning to associate 2 Stimui US and NS And through this the NS becomes a CS Unconditione d Stimulus Io condition an Individual unconditional stimulus rep stimulus Contiguity The amount of I Neutral Stimulus Conditioned Stimulus ian oned Contingency How reliably the NSCS signals the US will be presented Real world applications Certain Emotions are conditioned Such as feeling happy when you smell your grandmother s perfume USUR are rstorder conditioning however higher order conditioning occurs on top of the initial conditioning Example Little Albert Rat US which he 39 Loud SoundNS 39 enjoyed playing with He did In this case a loud noise every enJOyEd as pre Fear sed him to associate the feeling of it l lilar stimulus in the same way Ie speci c stimulus but does not occur with similar stimulus wh sea or other feelings of illness with a certain food and late ccw Wch a we ght smell or idea of the food Only one pairing of the feeling of nausea and the food is necessary Unlike other forms of conditioning the removal of a conditioned response the process of learning a conditioned response or behavior uses classical conditioning to encourage people to avoid certain stimuli Taste aversion is used to treat alcoholism by giving the individual Antabuse and if they drink alcohol then they get intensely ill during extinction the tendency for a conditioned response to reappear and strengthen over a brief period of time before becoming extinct again a type of learning in which the organism learns through the consequences of its behavior A principle discovered by e l Thorndike which states that behaviors that lead to positive consequences will be strengthened and behaviors that lead to negative consequences will be weakened The study of the law of effect the strengthening of a response because it39s rewarded Adding something pleasant to the environment Removing something unpleasant from the environment The weakening of a response that occurs when a behavior leads to an unpleasant consequence Weakening a behavior by adding something unpleasant to the organisms environment Weakening a behavior by removing something pleasant from the organism39s environment a device created by BF skinner to study operant behavior in a compressed time frame The organism is rewarded or punished for engaging in certain behaviors Videogames Leap pad Teaching Are examples of how the Skinner box is used in modern time quot the frequency and timing of the reinforcements that an organism receives a schedule of reinforcement in which the organism is rewarded for every instance of the desire response A schedule of reinforcement where the organism is only rewarded some of the time for the desired behavior ratio schedules are based on the number of responses and interval schedules are based on the timing of the response a schedule where only a set number of responses will produce the reward An exact number of responses required to receive a reward varies based on an average A schedule of reinforcement where the organism is rewarded for the rst instance of the response but after that a speci c interval of time must pass before it will be rewarded again Yearly review at work organism typically stops working inbetween intervals the length of time between the rewards for responses varies Examples not knowing when your inspection is coming so keeping everything clean all the time Generalizing occurs when the same behavior occurs in response to a different but similar stimuli Discrimination occurs when the organism learns to distinguish among different stimuli and respond only in speci c situations where the reward will come To be operany conditioned the organism must rst engage in the behavior spontaneously Shaping using operant conditioning to build a new behavior in an organism by rewarding successive approximations of the desired response anything that may lead to the desired behavior is rewarded Punishment doesn39t teach the correct behavior in a given situation Harsh punishment particularly physical punishment teaches aggressive behavior teaches them that aggression is a powerful way to control other people39s behavior Harsh punishment often leads to negative emotional reactions including anger fear and anxiety can cause the child to fear the parent Tell the child what the appropriate behavior is and then reinforce that behavior Minimize situations to tempt the child to engage in the behavior Use punishments that are really punishing Punishment must be immediate Punishment has to be consistent Remain calm when punishing a child Primary reinforce a reinforce that is reinforcing in of itself Secondary reinforcers a reinforce that is reinforcing because it lead to a primary reinforce Token economy a system of operant conditioning in which participants are reinforced with tokens that can later be cashed for primary reinforcers lnsight Sudden realization about how to solve a problem that occurs after an organism has studied the problem for a long time learning that cannot be directly observed in an organism39s behavior Learning through observation and imitation of others behavior