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Week 3

by: Kendall Krapfl

Week 3 2301

Kendall Krapfl
GPA 3.1
Clinical Psychology

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About this Document

Mood disorders (cont.), Anxiety disorders
Clinical Psychology
Class Notes
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Popular in Clinical Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kendall Krapfl on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2301 at University of Iowa taught by Casillas in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Clinical Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Iowa.


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Date Created: 10/09/15
91015 Thursday September 10 2015 631 PM 0 Statistics Point prevalence Percentage of the population with a disorder within a particular period of time Lifetime prevalence Percentage of individuals who have ever had a specific disorder at any tin Depression is more relevant in females at point and lifetime prevalence Lifetime prevalence of depression is higher than point prevalence in both genders Biological Factors 0 O 0 Genetic factors are supported by family twin and adoption studies Both unipolar and bipolar depression are hereditary Severe depression in an individual increases likeliness of relatives developing a mood disorder Concordance rate for depression 39 40 in M2 twins I 10 in DZ twins Concordance rate for bipolar disorder 39 7080 for M2 twins I 10 20 for DZ twins The more relatedthe higher chance of developing both depressionbipolar Link between neurobiochemical factors 39 Imbalances in norepinephrine NE serotonin 5HT and dopamine DA pla a role in depression 39 Certain endocrine diseases are linked to depression Beck39s Cognitive Distortion Model 0 O 0 Very influential in study of depression Belief39s and selfknowledge organized into schema Cognitive triad of negative schemas r Il 16 O I Negative View or the self 39 Negative view of the world 39 Negative view of the future Depressed individuals engage in automatic negative thoughts that bias view of self the world and the future Automatic thoughts show content specificity by focusing on experiences of loss anc failure HelplessnessH opelessn ess Model 0 O O Seligman39s model which started as a conditioning model Proposed that exposure to uncontrollable aversive situations develops depression rooted in feeling helpless Model was transformed by Abramson into an attributional model Certain cognitive distortions affect interpretation of causes of events in one39s life Characterized by 3 types of attributions about negative events 39 Internal caused by own failings 39 Stable causes are constant 39 Global causes have broad and general effects Cannot account for the cause of depression 0 Life Events Model 0 Findings suggest life events relate to development of depression especially if there have been previous episodes 0 0 Combined biological environmental and personal factors that lead to depression States that biological vulnerability diathesis interacts with life stressors to produce depression Must have diathesis to have depression doesn39t matter on stress level Diathesis wno stress no depression Diathesis wstress depression Threshold High diathesis m W Low diathesis For people with a high diathesis it doesn t take a lot of stress to go over threshold 0 Gender Differences 0 There are no gender differences in depression until adolescence 0 Women diagnosed with depression twice as often as men society norms postpartum depression hormones Other Differences o Hispanics and Blacks are less likely to be depressed than Whites but complicated I SES 0 Marriedpartnered individuals less likely than singledivorced people Seelev et al 2009 Equi nality Mulitiple pathways by which a person can develop a disorder Cognitive Vulnerability Model Negative cognitions serve as a risk factor which in combinatior with stressful life events increase the risk for depression StressBuffering Model Social support protects people from the risks posed by stressful life events 0 The most predictive risk factors included I Existing depressive symptoms I Poor school functioning I Poor family functioning I Low parental support I Bulimic symptoms I Delinquency 0 Important points I Classification Tree Analysis atechnique to evaluate interactions between ris factors interactions revealed between 4 factors marked with I The findings suggest that there are different pathways by which adolescent girls develop depression Anxiety Disorders 0 Historically psychiatric disorders divided into neuroses and psychoses o Neuroses are milder considerable discomfort some maladaptive behavior but in contact with reality 0 Psychoses involve major disturbance such as loss of contact with reality delusions hallucinations thought disorder DSMS Anxiety Disorders 0 Panic Disorder 39 With or without Agoraphobia fears 39 Separation Anxiety Disorder 39 Phobias III Animal III Natural environment III Bloodinjection injury needles surgery III Situational airplanes enclosed places I Social Anxiety Disorder formerly social phobia 39 Generalized Anxiety Disorder DSMS Formerly Anxiety Disorders 0 Trauma and Stressorrelated Disorders 39 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder 39 Acute Stress Disorder 0 Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders I OCD 39 Hoarding Anxiety Disorders 0 Tend to occur more often in women than in men ratio of approximately 21 0 Lifetime prevalence for any anxiety disorder 288 Panic Attack 0 Discrete period with sudden onset of intense apprehension fearfulness or terror often associated with feelings of impending doom 0 During these attacks symptoms such as shortness of breath palpitations chest pa or discomfort choking or smothering sensations and fear or quotgoing crazyquot or losing control are present o If with Agoraphobia characterized by both unexpected panic attacks and agoraphobia o If without Agoraphobia characterized by recurrent unexpected panic attacks about which there is persistent concern CognitiveBehavioral Model of Anxiety 0 Various cognitive and behavioral theories of anxiety share features 0 Barlow proposed integrative model from cognitive behavioral and psychology of in emouon Distinction between fear and anxiety Fear 39 A primitive basic emotion occurring automatically when threatened with rea or perceived danger 39 An action tendency defined by quotfight or flightquot response 39 Experienced as a strong urge to escape from a threatening situation Anxiety 39 A blend of different emotions including anger excitement and fear itself 39 A fragmented cognitiveaffective process with sense of unpredictability or uncontrollability over potentially negative or harmful events 39 Associated with chronic physiological arousal 39 Experienced as apprehension 39 Characterized by selffocused attention that increases arousal and awareness of threatrelated stimuli I Clinical manifestation of fear 39 Not a true alarm triggered by real danger 39 False alarmdanger is only perceived I Differs from anxiety in 2 ways III Specific thoughts III Physiological response 39 Panic disorder results form catastrophic misinterpretation of normal bodily sensations 39 Misinterpreted sensations may be normal physical sensations but also may include bodily changes in response to excitement or anger 39 Sensations are perceived as much more dangerous than they really are 39 Research shows that panic patients misinterpret bodily sensations catastrophically


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