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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kendall Krapfl on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2301 at University of Iowa taught by Casillas in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Clinical Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
91715 Thursday September 17 2015 626 PM Exam 50 from lecture 30 from Pomerantz text 20 from Oltmanns and research articles Short Essay Questions Have list ahead of time Sampled from lecture and readings that we discussed in class Make sure to read questions carefully Oltmanns Know themes General issues experienced and treatments given 0 Speci c phobia Clinically significant anxiety provoked by exposure to a specific feared object or situation often leading to avoidance behavior Common but rarely result in diagnosis due to insufficient impairment or distress Reported prevalence varies according to types of phobias studied General prevalences 1 year 9 ifetime approx 11 0 Social Anxiety Disorder social phobia Clinically significant anxiety provoked by exposure to some social or performance situations often leading to avoidance behavior Prevelence rates also vary widely 1 year 12 Lifetime approx 13 o Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD At least 6 months of persistant and excessive anxiety and worry I Involves quotfree floating anxietyquot or anxiety not attached to anything specific I Individuals often report a lifetime of generalized anxiety with no specific trigger for onset I Prevelence 1 year 3 Lifetime 5 I People with GAD very likely to have other disorders I National Comorbidity Study 90 of those with GAD have comoridity with another disorder Comorbidity Two or more disorders cooccur in one individual An entire body of research has examined comorbidity bw depression and anxiety 0 Tripartite Model Influential model by Watson and Clark I Before this model researchers were unable to distinguish depression from anxiety with psychological instruments I 3 Components III General distress Negative Affectivity Pervasive negative emotionality and selfconcept 0 High NA individuals tend to be distressed upset and have negative view of self 0 Low NA individuals are relatively content secure and satisfied with self 0 A mixture of depression and anxiety III Anhedonia Lack of experiencing pleasure 0 More depression related III Anxious arousal Physiological symptoms of anxiety sweaty palms palpitations More anxiety related o Hierarchical Model 39 Further research shows that anxious arousal only contributes to panic disorder not all anxiety disorders 39 Reformulated model hierarchical model ofanxiety and depression I Each disorder has III One or more general components that are shared with other disorders III One or more specific components that are unique to each disorder 0 Substance Use Disorders 0 Substance Abuse SA 39 Became a focus of study in mental asylums in 1800s 39 Lifetime Prevelences III 6 for opiods to 13 for alcohol III 146 for any substance use disorder 39 Gender Ratiosapproximately 21 MzF 39 Categories of Drugs of Abuse III Stimulants Cocaine amphetamine methamphetamine caffeine nicotine III Sedatives Opiates Opium morphine heroin barbiturates anxiolytics alcohol III Hallucinogens LSD ecstasy mescaline marijuana o Binge Drinking I No universal definition usually defined by frequency quantity and consequences of use 39 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study III Men 5 drinks in a row III Women 4 drinks in a row Nelson et al 39 VVISCUHSIH lllgllESL dUUIL Ulllge Ul39lllKlllg l39dLe Utah lowest for both adult and college binge drinking rates 0 Correlation between binge drinking for college and adults 43 0 Where one lives predicts binge drinking by college students 0 Effects of Alcohol 0 Biphasic effect 39 Initial effect is stimulating 39 After blood alcohol levels peak and begin to decline it acts as a depressant 0 Individual experiences of effects of alcohol are modified by expectations 0 Those with family history of alcoholism tend to have fewer effects from consumption of alcohol 0 Research on family history and heritibility led to subtyping 0 Type 1 More common lower heritabilty begin drinking later in life higher risk of developing liver or other problems 0 Type II Less common higher heritability begin drinking earlier in life tend to experience fewer physical effects 0 Why are drugs addictive 0 Reinforcement 39 Positive reinforcement Substance elicits positive feelings euphoria energy results from increased synaptic activity in dopamine paths I Negative Reinforcement Eliminates distress helps people calm down reduces craving results form stimulating natural opiates pain relievers in the nervous system