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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kionna Morris on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 343 at Old Dominion University taught by Dr. Polonko in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Sociology of Sexuality in Sociology at Old Dominion University.
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Soc402 Child Welfare Dr K Polonko LECTURE OUTLINE of Material on Child Sexual Abuse and its relationship to the larger sexuality script and sexual aggression A GENERAL OUTLINE OF TRADITIONAL SEXUALITY SCRIPT examples of key features of the script specifics of this general outline on this page are not on the exam 1 Men on average have greater access to occupational and economic resources than women leaving traditional women with sexuality as a primary resource to negotiate with 2 3 while boys are taught to seek sexual gratification since their resource is status and economics 4 Re ecting men s greater power Traditional men are taught to push for sex to be aggressive that no means yes and women really want it but they have to be pushed Violence against Women grounded in Patriarchy quotGenderbased Abuse The Global Epidemicquot Heise Cad Saude Pamquot Rio de janeiro 10 supl 1 135145 1994 httpwwwscieobrscielophppid0102 311X1994000500009ampscriptsciarttextamptng quotViolence against women is grounded in power imbalances between men and women and is caused and perpetuated by factors different than violence against menquot Heise 1994139 against women is grounded in As such it must be analyzed and addressed differently While women are occasionally violent against intimates research has shown that female violence is usually in self defense and that it is women who suffer the bqu of injury Dobash 1992quot B DATA ON THE 5 ASPECTS OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN I SEXUAL AGGRESSION 1 0 80 of college women report being a victim of sexual aggression on a date at least once in college 67 report sexual aggression on a date in high school 0 50 approx of college men report sexually aggressing a woman on a date at least once And 50 of these men or 25 of all college men report aggressing a woman on a date more than once If sexual aggression was not part of the larger sexuality script the percent of women being sexually aggressed and the percent of men sexually aggressing women would be much lower Or conversely if sexual aggression was part of the larger sexuality script one would expect the percent of women to be very high as it is and the percent of men engaging in sexual aggression to be high as it is IE the vast majority of women have been sexually aggressed on a date and one half or more of college men admit to having sexually aggressed a woman on a date 2 0 The biggest predictor of whether a woman will be aggressed on a date is Other important predictors include whether the date was planned or spontaneous whether HE had been drinking and whether HE had done drugs the coefficient for her drinking was not significant after controlling for his drinking whether he was in a fratemitywhich indicated traditional sex role attitudes etc If sexual aggression was not part of the larger sexuality script we would not expect it to be related to variables like number of men dated or to variables indicating traditional values 3 0 Men who commit sexual aggression show no remorse and blame the victim ie she is a tease or a whore and therefore deserved what she got The victim also blames herself If sexual aggression was not part of the larger sexuality script then we would expect 2 the perpetrator and Victim to blame the perpetrator and not the Victim II DATE RAPE 1 1215 of college women report having been raped on a date An additional 15 of college women report being the victim of an attempted rape and an additional 15 of college women report being pressured to have sex and not wanting to but giving in because they felt that they had no choice These women do not call this rape Depending upon the study between 50 and 80 of men say that they would rape a woman if they were certain that they would not get caught In the early 1970s Kanin found that 25 of college men admitted to raping a woman on a date In the late 1990s 1215 of college men admitted to raping a woman on a date College men who had raped a woman on a date were more likely than other men to Belong to a fraternity hold rapejustifying beliefs score high on macho and hyper masculinity measures score high on aggression score low on empathy and social conscience have sexually aggressed a woman on a date in college and in high school have participated in a gang rape with their buddies etc Report no remorse even though in all cases of date rape they admitted that the woman begged screamed cried for him not to rape her and blamed her for the rape by saying that she was a tease or a gold digger or a whore etc III MARITAL RAPE 1 15 of wives report being raped in marriage 2 Typically involves physical violence assertion of power show no remorse IV STRANGER RAPE 1 Share very similar characteristics to men who commit date rape and marital rape ie they hold traditional values and high on machohypermasculine measures are low on empathy and low on social conscience have no remorse and are high on physical aggression in general See publications by Dr Scully etc Among the numbers most women are raped by someone they know or trust though V Child Sexual AbuseIncest not pedophilia which is different Lecture Outline Note that this is an outline of the lecture This is not meant to be exhaustive and does not cover all of the points discussed in class 1 Myths The Social ReConstruction of Child Sexual Abuse CSA and Incest a In spite of the fact that most CSAIncest is committed by someone the child knows as is the case for sexual violence against women in the 19205 backlash against the increasing rights of women and children led to the myth that CSA is something perpetrated by strangers not male family members within the home That myth remains firmly entrenched in belief systems even toda In spite of the lack of scientific research to support this claim it is believed that the mother knows of the sexual abuse of the child 2 quotinkblot studiesquot there is a myth that men rape daughters because their wife refuses to give them sex 2 Statistics a Percent of all girls under the age of 14 who are victimized About 1 in 4 girls under the age of 14 are the victims of IncestCSA About 1 in 2 girls under the age of 14 are the victims of IncestCSA andor ExhibitionProposition Percent of Girls Victimized by Type of CSA Under age 18 Incest 1 2 1 6 Extra family 20 31 Total 28 38 Total Including Exhibition and 48 54 Proposition Less than 5 of girls are victimized by women Percent incest by perpetrator FatherStep father 25 Uncle 27 Older Brother 15 Older Male Cousin 15 Other 15 Percent incest by severity Most severe forced Coitus 24 Oral or Anal sex Forced Manual Contact 40 Without Clothes Forced Manual Contact 36 With Clothes On 10 Gender of Victims Gender of Perpetrator Among reported cases over 90 of sex offenders are men quotin general pop surveys95 of the adult contacts with girls and 80 of the adults contacts with boys are made by menquot Finkelhor et al 1986 P 126 Background of Incest Perpetrator The majority of child sexual abuse involves a heterosexual male perpetrator victimizing a female child NOTE while child physical abuse is significantly related to the boy child becoming an incest perpetrator and being arrested for rape as a teenager and adult child sexual abuse is not related to subsequently committing incest recall also that committing marital rape is correlated with committing Incest Blame Typically the victims themselves and their mothers are blamed for the sexual abuse Remorse Perpetrators show no remorse Eg she ie his 8 year old daughter made him do it This lack of remorse by perpetrators of incestGSA is just like the lack of remorse that characterizes perpetrators of sexual aggression on dates date rapists marital rapists and stranger rapists Consequences of CSAlncest for the victim can be severe Examples Severity of consequences depend on a variety of factors from the severity of abuse whether there were multiple perpetrators relationship to perpetrator whether other types of abuse cooccurred how long the child was abused whether there were other adults who served as enlightened witnesses the child39s IQ and other resources etc a mental health issues anxiety depression sleep disorders self blame to self hate including suicide attemptsetc b physical health issues physical health problems c two to three times more likely as an adult to experience beatings and rape in marriage by her husband Reasons For Consequences Why girl victims of incestGSA are 23 times more likely to be raped and physically abused in marriagepart of the reason relates to the adverse consequences of CSNlncest including mental and physical health issues such as depression selfblame which predators seek out in prey not unlike animals on the hunt will catch the oldest or weakest prey The victim of CSA also has been taught to blame herself and prevented from learningexperiencing healthy nonexploitive male behavior and may have fewer resources as a result of the CSA to protect herself Extent to which CSAlncest is an extension of the traditional sexuality script Understanding that CSAlncest is part of the larger picture of the larger sexualization of females in a patriarchal culture excluding pedophilia with boys victimized by males E If CSAlncest was not part of the larger sexuality script the percent of girls that are victims of CSAlncest would be much lower b If CSAlncest was not part of the larger sexuality script then boys and girls would be equally likely to be victims of CSAlncest c If CSAlncest was not part of the larger sexuality script then the perpetrators of CSNlncest would be equally likely to be male and female d If sexual aggression was not part of the larger sexuality script then we would expect the perpetrator and victim to blame the perpetrator and not the victim Notice how these points are quite similar to those relating to why sexual aggression of high school and college women can be seen as an extension of the traditional sexuality script recall Note the power of the cycle of abuse Women who were physically abused as a child are more likely to be physically abused by their husband and men who physically abuse their wives are more likely to physically abuse their children Women who were sexually abused as a child are more likely to be rapedsexually victimized by their husbands and men who sexually victimize and batter their wives are more likely to sexually abuse their daughters See Yllo and Bogrand Russell Finkelhor and Yllo 11Policy Implications Examples a b VI Pedophilia Pedophiles as a Category Different from IncestGSA lE men who are exclusively interested in sex with boys no interest in adult males or females Also consistent with the stereotypes these males are very immature and asexual with adults or use relationships with women as a cover 0 Many studies have found that offenders against boys tend to start their offending earlier to be more exclusively pedophilic in their sexual interests and to have more of an ideological commitment to their offending as a lifestylequot Finkelhor et al R135 0 Like CSNlncest the consequences for these boys can be substantial in life 0 Policy implications to end pedophilia ie the sexual victimization of young males we need to empower our children in many ways Note The next sections VII VIII are to help understand the different etiology You do not need to know the details of the studies but rather the overall point 7 VII CSA and CPA lead to different victimization subsequently CSA of boys more likely to grow up and sexually abuse boys Lussier et al 2005 sexual victimization during childhood was positively related to interest for children specifically in homosexual sic same gender child molesters becker Hunter Stein amp Kaplan 1989 Murphy DiLillo Haynes amp Steere 2001 CPA of boys more likely to sexually abuse girls incest and rape women when older Finkelhor D Pp 7994 Chapter 4 in Rosenberg M and M Finley Eds 1991 Violence in American A Public Health Approach P 86 A review 49of studies of incestuous fathers finds evidencethey are more frequently victims of physical abuse than sexual abuse and have poor relationships with their own father Finkelhor et al 1986 Sourcebook on Child Sexual Abuse Pp102 103 Gebhard et al in contrast found less child molestation in the backgrounds of incest offendersquot than any other group That is maleobject pedophiles had more childhood sexual approaches by adult males than any other sexual offender of control group 33 of 123 but among all the sex offenderssex abusers only the incest offenders were distinct in having less sexual contacts with adults during childhoodprepuberty Many studies have found that offenders against boys tend to start their offending earlier to be more exclusively pedophilic in their sexual interests and to have more of an ideological commitment to their offending as a lifestyle P135 Incest offenders tend to molest over later stages with nieces etc Widom Cathy Spatz and M Ashley Ames 1994 quotCriminal Consequences of Childhood Sexual Victimizationquot Child Abuse and Neglect 18 4303318 Table 3 Predictors of Arrests for Adult Sex Crimes Prostitution and Rape or Sodomy linear logit model controlling for relevant sociodemographic variables including race gender SES etc Predictor Any Sex Crime Prostitution RapeSodomy MISLEADING GenderMale 19 06 84 female Only men committed Child Sexual 15 33 04 Abuse Child Physical 14 14 20 Abuse Child Neglect 08 23 10 As many other researchers have noted Widom states that data show that child sexual abuse is NOT related to rape and sodomy but Child Physical Abuse IS related to increasing probability that boy Will rape In contrast child sexual abuse and child neglect of girls in particular is related to increased risk of prostitution though CPA is not 0 Stermac L Alison Davidson and Peter M Sheridan 1995 Incidence of Nonsexual Violence In Incest Offenders quot International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 392167178 Department of Applied Psychology Ontario Institute for Studies in Education 252 Bloor Street West Toronto Ontario M5S 1V6 CANADA ABSTRACT A number of reports have emphasized the lack of physical aggression and violence used by incest offenders despite evidence to the contrary from victims The current study investigated the extent of sexual and nonsexual violence committed by incest offenders against members of their family Two groups of offenders 38 incest offenders and 52 nonsex offenders were compared on ratings of threats violence and amounts of physical aggression used in their index offenses as well as outside of their index offenses within their homes The results of the study revealed that a large percentage of both groups of offenders used physical nonsexual violence directed towards both partners and children within their homes P 175 A very large percent of incest offenders like the other nonincest offenders have physically abused wife and children violence against wife 24 children 13 both wife and child 29 Clear that large percent of incest offenders also physically violentphysically abuse wife and child as Russell et al suggested long ago 0 Overholser J and S Beck 1989 The classification of rapists and child molesters Behavioral Sciences and the Law 8107120 CSA 58 of child molesters 25 of rapists vs 5 of matched controls were victims of CSA Note that the latter is close to 6 for the population but figures on rapists contrasts what Scully found for convicted rapists Most of rapists and child molesters reported no sexual abuse so the authors then later ask them to describe their first sexual experience the authors say they would describe the first encounter as POTENTIALLY coercive with someone much older BUT that is NOT how CSA is measured that is not CSAat best it is relevant to first sex characteristics research Connection between likelihood of raping a women and attraction to a small child Briere J and M Runtz 1989 Wexual interest in children Predictinq potential indices of pedophilia in a nonforensic sample Child Abuse and Neglect 13 65 75 Abstract A survey was administered to 193 male undergraduate students regarding their sexual interest in children as well as their responses to a number of questions theoretically relevant to pedophilia In total 21 of subjects reported sexual attraction to some small children 9 described sexual fantasies involving children 5 admitted to having masturbated to such fantasies and 7 indicated some likelihood of having sex with a child if they could avoid detection and punishment These sexual interests were associated with negative early sexual experiences masturbation to pornography selfreported likelihood of raping a woman frequent sex partners sexual conflicts and attitudes supportive of sexual dominance over women The data did not however support clinical theories regarding sexual repression or impulse control problems among potential pedophiles VIII THEORY Patriarchy re Sexual Strati cation Collins Con ict Theory Feminist Theory Patriarchy sets up a pattern of violence against women and children oppression of women as a group discrimination against females related to unequal access to resources and power and results in greater sexual violence against women and girls including child sexual abuse incest rape domestic violence against wife and child FGM quothonor killing of rape victimsquot Adultarchy re victims of violence especially by parents and caretakers child physical sexual emotional abuse and neglect and exploitation of children reflects oppression of children as a group denied access to resources property of parents without legal protection etc Neurophysiology re brain and central nervous system changes that lead to different outcomes depending on type of child abuse eg CPA affects lower part of brain and leads to more physical violence and more sexual violence child sexual abuse of girls and rape of women CSA affects limbic and leads to more emotional dysfunction 10 Flow chart of ndings from research discussed above links with are hypothesized but in need of research to document Perpetrated incest when younger Against sister other female relative 17 Sexually Aggress females on a date in High School Sexually Aggress females on a date in College Rape a woman on a date in college AND Gang rape a woman In college 17 Commit Marital Rape husband rapes wife Perpetrate incest Against daughter other female child relative B Summary of best fitting breakdown of percents from research 1 Of college men 25 of college men have sexually aggressed a woman on a date once 10 of college men have sexually aggressed a woman on a date more than once but have not raped coitus a woman on a date in college 15 of college men have sexually aggressed a woman on a date more than once and have raped a woman on a date in college 2 around 15 of college men admit to raping a woman on a date and 15 of married men admit to raping their wife 3 around 25 of boys 6th grade agree with the statement that if a man pays for dinner he has a right to force the girl to have sex and 25 of college men have sexually aggressed a woman more than once 4 around 50 of males state they would rape a woman if they were sure they wouldn t get caught and around 50 of college men have sexually aggressed a woman at least once 11 Number 1 6 Men who rape their Wives are more likely to commit incest Number 2 12