Medieval Church Oct 5-9
Medieval Church Oct 5-9 HIST 1010 - 001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
October 5 2015 The Medieval Church I Role of the Church A Sacraments B Charity C Education ll Problems in the Church A Monastic communities B Investiture con ict i Secular clergy ii Regular clergy iii transubstantiation iv Cluny v Gregory Vll vi Henry IV vii Canossa This is a Christian church that becomes very important and powerful It is THE most powerful institution in this time Europe becomes Christian gradually in the middle ages Conversion takes centuries and the pope sent of missionaries into Europe all over to gradually convert the Germanic people and it was successful The high middle ages 11th13th centuries is the high peak at this time The sacraments in medieval Christianity a concept develops that there is no salvation outside of the church aka there is no being saved and no heaven without the assistance of the church speci cally in the form of sacraments because this is how they literally channel God39s grace to the person and save the person This idea made the church very powerful and central in the lives of the people The church also acted as the caregiver of Europeans in the middle ages and there is limited government and monarchs to be responsible for the people The little charity is at the hands of the church they dispense relief to the poor They are limited in what they can do but they are the only ones who take care of the poor and what little medical existed the church was providing The church was also the provider of education but this was also an age and place of incredible levels of illiteracy so the church is the only thing that educated anyone Started as several dozen literate people in the beginning and not much more in the high Middle Ages and the literacy mainly focused on educating the wealthy or those to become clergy Schools began as cathedrals and turned into universities this is a contribution to the western world They began to address education at higher levels Any and all education was at the hands of the church There are two types of clergy secular and regular Secular clergy were those who live out society and work with people and handle sacraments and the regular clergy were the monastic orders aka monks and nuns who lived away from society to spend time in prayer to pray for the salvation of humankind The regulars monastic communities become a problem to the church They begin to not do their job and some of the monasteries became a dumping ground for young sons and daughters of noble families the eldest son gets everything from the family but the other children are left hanging so the family looks for something less expensive to give a good future to them so they dump their children there and donate to the convents and monasteries The problem is these children aren39t called by god to be there and this drew criticism The church responded by trying to x the problems and address them by reforming monastic communities In a place in France called Cluny the made a new model with much more supervision and oversight in 9th century In 11th century the investiture controversy was investing someone with an of ce So the pope would pick and choose them make someone a bishop but by the 11th century monarchs thought they should be the bishops in their own territory so they wanted to appoint their own people for these positions so monarchs wanted to control the high ranking jobs in the church themselves and control the church in their realms This is a power struggle and this is a problem The church met this head on and when it did it turned out on top as usual The Holy Roman Empire is the Germanics and the ruler is Henry IV He tried to appoint his own people and pope Gregory the Vll tried to tell Henry he needs to stop this and Gregory started threatening to cut Gregory39s subjects off of the sacraments so their salvation was in jeopardy so his own vassals rebelled against him so Henry was forced to back down and forced to meet in the Alps in Canossa to apologize to Gregory He walks barefoot through the snow and takes days to ask for forgiveness this shows how powerful the church was and this example shows the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire begging for forgiveness of the pope When its papacy vs monarch papacy wins Cathedrals were built in gothic architecture which were extremely elaborate and this signi ed the importance and prominence of the church It took decades and generations of artisans and tons of money was spilt into building these They style is very elaborate and are also known for the use of a stained glass window The elaborate vaulting and arches allow the large windows so that is very advanced architecture These windows served many purposes they are there to create a heightened spiritual atmosphere and they are here to tell a story to the illiterate people so pictures were a way to teach these individuals of the stories in the bible lll Intellectual trends A Recovery of Aristotle B Scholasticism and Aquinas IV Crusades A Causes B Effects i Abelard H Urbanll iii Salah asDin Saladin iv Antisemitism v usury This was a time where intellect was huge The high point of medieval thought is scholasticism which is the summit of medieval thought which is prompted by a recovery of Aristotle The medieval Europeans don39t know of Aristotle in the early middle ages but is revived in the high medieval age and this is due to the Islamic world The west reencounters Aristotle but this is slightly problematic for Christianity because Aristotle goes against the fact that the soul leaves the body and goes to heaven Aristotle said the soul gives body purpose meaning and function and the soul dies with the body The church s rst response was telling the intellectual few who know these thoughts they tried to suppress the reading of Aristotle due to heresy Church intellectuals read Aristotle and found in him support for Christian beliefs and we call this scholasticism The greatest of medieval thought was Thomas Aquinas who loved Aristotle because of the reason behind his thoughts Scholastics reconcile the church and Aristotle to bring them together and that they aren39t incompatible You can reconcile the logic of Aristotle with the faith of Christianity For Aquinas he spent his life comparing the two but there are times where Aristotle made mistakes in his reason and logic On the issue of immortality on the soul he made a mistake and instead of reciting Aristotle he created his own syllogism quotAll humans have a natural desire to live foreverquot Minor quoteverything in nature has a purposequot So Aquinas creates this to say Christianity is logical not just faith Where Aristotle doesn39t disagree he has proved the doctrine of Christianity This is something the Arab world has been struggling with The crusades began by a call for the crusades which is a march to the holy land The causes take back the holy land from the Muslims and assist the Byzantine Empire Only the rst crusades accomplished anything everything else was miserable The effects antiSemitism which is the hatred ofJews Jews in Europe had not been fully integrated in society but they ful lled vital economic role the money lenders This is important in a growing economy to become commercial this was the Jews because Christians were forbidden from charging interest usury In 13th century church began to back off of being against usury Antisemitism is ring up because of crusades and further separate Jews Most took refuge in Germany and some other parts Crisis of the Fourteenth Century l The Church A Avignon Papacy B Great Schism C New Devotion i Annates ii Urban VI The church was the powerhouse of Europe until the 14th century This is bad when Popes move to Avignon In 1305 a French pope was elected pope so he decided to move papacy to Avignon southern France This happens for a series of popes 7 of them These Popes were perceived as puppets of the king of France It is also extremely expensive to move away and constructing a new palace very sketchy nancial practices that were good for the church Annates for example was a tax papacy elected so when the new pope hired someone there was a tax taken as the person39s rst year income and they may keep the person for a few years and move him to make that money again and this is happening more often and faster The last pope of Avignon moved and died a year later so they chose Urban Vl as pope Urban Vl is a reformer who was appalled by Avignon and he didn39t nd how they did things prior to him he wants to save money and even at dinner one course is ne and you don39t need multiple courses Urban s cardinals and workers were thrown off and were expecting this His opponents were bringing up legal issues of his selection to try to get him out of papacy and legally dump him Some cardinals believe he is right and want to keep Urban There is a Schism between church and cardinals on those supporting and against the Pope The side against Urban chose a new pope and moved back to Avignon so there is a pope in Avignon and one in Rome If you were French you tend to look to Avinon and if you were English you tend to look to rome This is part of a larger church crisis This is resolved in 1414 but now it39s been dismysti ed and awed to the people In this period the church also confronted a movement known as the New Devotion aka mysticism This is a movement of clergy and lay people they aren39t challenging the church at all but they encourage ordinary men and women to change their ways to pray more and speak to god more or seek a more person relationship with God This is important because it shows how problematic and low the church has gotten because people no longer feel like the church cant channel Gods grace well anymore there is a lot of anxiety about the church ll Political and Military Crisis A Causes 1 Problems of feudalism 2 disputed claims to throne B War 13371453 and innovation C Effects i Lords and Vassals iL CapeUans iii Valois iv Edward lll v Crecy vi Cavalry vii Infantry viii Parliament ix EstatesGeneral 100 years war is a long con ict between England and france This is a crisis of feudalism which was very important in middle ages Disputed claims to the throne of france The Capetians get throne and pass down to Valois who is a distant relative family Skips over people to Edward lll whos mother is Capetian Edward III was skipped over even though he was more closely related to his grandfather who died The real reason was to put a king in charge but they needed a legality so to justify skipping him legally they said he wasn t next because he was related to Capetians through the mom not dad This was one cause of the 100 years39 war because Edward lll thought he had the best claim to the throne but the fundamental cause of the war is feudalism lords and vassals don39t seem to be working because it39s made situations riddles with problems Aquitaine which had a duke rule in France was controlled by the King of England Edward III who is also supposed to be the vassal of king of france due to being the duke of Aquataine He would throw the king of England around because they were enemies Homage is the ceremony in which vassals come and honor overlord There are many forms of homage and the king of france wanted to see Edward lll do this but it was humiliating and made the rift between lord and vassal even worse Edward needed a reason to go to war with Kinf of France not as his Vassal but as his rival as King of England who is his rival There were some times of piece during the 100 years wars and during this there were new military advances such as the longbow Early in the war English won a battle by the use of longbow as the enemy used a crossbow as well as they had more troops This the the beginning odf a military revolution This starts return of the infantry The grand nally of infantry weapons was used by French and this is gun powder This enable French to drive English out of france and nally defeat the English Effects feudalism in crisis new military advances and through tax there became parliament and estatesgeneral which became regular is political life during the war because the kings need money which these two approve taxation for the king The power they wield allows them to redress and parliament says sure if they get xy and z changed giving them power over the government in changing laws etc lll Social and Economic Crisis A Malthus Crisis B Bubonic Plague C Effects 1 Emancipation of the serfs 2 Psychological impact i Subsistence farming ii Dance macabre The bubonic plague is a huge crisis in Europe because it is part of the Malthus Crisis Malthus studied preindustrial population trends He predicted that the population will grow steady for a while hit a ceiling and then a disease will hit and knock the population back down Population grew in the middle ages and couldn39t keep up so they farmed more and more land but there is only so much land in order to feed the population There are no advances in farming and technology so they did subsistence farming which is producing what you need to live off of and little or no surplus Not only is the population not being fed but they39re malnourished which is also part of the Malthusian plan and these people can39t ght off diseases A third of the population of Europe was killed 25 million There were a few types of plagues bubonic hit lymph nodes which was most obvious physically the others hit the respiratory system blood etc this begins the process called the emancipation of the serfs people bound to the land like slaves in west and central Europe To be a citizen of a town and a free person you must live there for a year and a day the plague hits and the work sector collapse so wages increase for work so the serfs know this and escape to town and once one leaves they all leave The emancipation of the serfs come in here so lords are forced to make conditions better so they essentially free them in order to keep them Legally manor by manor peasants of west and central Europe become free the only improvements are really just politically because their lives still such economically There is a major psychological impact because of the plague Death becomes commonplace barely a family was untouched they couldn39t bury the bodies enough so people lived among piles of dead bodies and they became very pessimistic and have a morbid preoccupation with death in its most putrid form Danse macabre quotthe dance of deathquot is a scene in the visual arts and literature where skeletons dance in a graveyard life is really short and nobody is spared death October 9 in class review Greeks Know what the polls is the Greek citystate They weren t united until the polls Most started out with kings experienced oligarchy and then democracy in Athens mainly Cylon tried to pull off a coup de39tat of Athenian government Draco write down laws of Athens to deal with Cylon and so justice is better and could now appeal stuff Solon most attributed to reforming Athenian democracy trial by jury and lowered property requirement to be a citizen and participate in politics Cleisthenes redesigned government and divided Athens into 10 groups for council of 500 to be better representative of the people Military reforms Calvary to infantry and rise of hoplite foot soldiers and phalanx were important in evoluti09n of democracy You had to be rich to ght before to train to be a warrior with a church To produce a good foot soldier in a phalanx it was cheap and easy The middle class was now able to have a role in the government Athens was example of democracy Sparta stayed monarchy and authorities They were in the Peloponnesian war Sparta and its allies and Athens and its allies Sparta won and stripped Athens of its democracy Hellenic philosophy Socrates Plato and Aristotle Socrates was a moralist struggled 09n how to live a good life and how does a god person make their way through life that is around a lot of bad He believed in selfre ection and its importance He asked people to examine what they did why they did it etc and re ect before acting on something He used the Socratic Method deductive logic simple to complex asked people questions and shake up people and force them to re ect This is the emergence of western rationalism People are no longer thinking of world in terms of gods and supernatural they didn39t stop believing but did believe in human behavior and nature were reasons for things too Plato was his student and he was an idealist or realist He struggles with issues of what is real he believes in what you sense imperically isn39t real all you see is a copy of reality All these ideas of things and objects have a perfect copy somewhere else He uses a cave analogy to explain Aristotle is the scientist and imperialist opposite of Plato Matter is all real and doesn39t have separate existence of its own Syllogism 3 step deductive logical thing Hellenistic world created by empire of alexander the great and create a mega empire The culture of the Hellenistic world science math and philosophy Reason it is so productive is because its very cosmopolitan and there are a lot of intertwining cultures Euclid elements of geometry became standard Aristarchus heliocentric cosmology of world Archimedes most brilliant of scientists pi gravity etc Stoicism Zeno Zeno was get through life with little emotion understand the universe isn39t random so take comfort in knowing things are part of a larger plan Epicurus epicureanism very Greek off scienti c theories of Democritus atoms combine and recombine rationally Universe is a machine This was a form of comfort and serenity This was his goal happiness Rome Roman republic decline and emergence of emperors Consuls executive branch of government in roman republic gradual process of them morphing into emperors Tributes during roman rep were created to look after interests of plebeians Patricians wealthy aristocratic senatorial class Plebeians the poor There was lots of tension between patricians and plebs Punic wars 3 of the during this period Rome39s arch enemy here is Carthage Big imperial contest Rome expands its military especially navy Carthage loses its turf as well as its allies Hannibal Carthage general who came close to defeating romans Took troops and pack animals in elephants over Alps into Italy and invaded heart of empire Latifundia large scale plantation farms Owned by the government wealthy aristocrats and worked by slave labor of prisoners of war from Punic wars and expansion39 Twelve tables law code granted to plebeians Consuls who morphed to emperor Marius commander or conquering hero of Rome reformed how troops were recruited and created private army to help install himself as consul He represented the plebeians Sulla reps patricians Lots of reforms like overnight and makes these more powerful again Julius Caesar not rst emperor but close Becomes tyrant Octavian Augustus Caesar pax romana lasts until 180 roman peace huge empire peace money infrastructure like roads and aqueducts This is a good time Edward gibbon roman historian in 18th century who wrote famous decline and fall of Roman Empire Launched wave of historian after another to nd single cause of why it fell He blames Christianity Foederati troops recruited by roman commanders from Germanic people beyond the borders This weakens Rome and borders39 Marcus Aurelius good emperor Found huge problem in Rome aka the change of power from one person to the next and appointed his son who was a disaster
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