ExperimentalPsychology2.pdf PSYCH 402
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verified elite notetaker
LIN 201 - M001
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haylee Smith on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 402 at University of South Carolina Upstate taught by Mr. Travis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Experimental Topics in Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Carolina Upstate.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
IO psych 2 Social Cognition How do you form judgements of other people 0 Automatic and deliberate fast and slow Why do we form judgements 0 Goal oriented Attitudes favorable or unfavorable evaluations Cognitive Dissonance highly motivating state in which people have con icting cognitions especially when their voluntary actions con ict with their attitudes or values Automatic and Subconscious Processes Heuristics why do we need them 0 Availability 0 Representativeness if something about a person or thing is similar to another aspect then you assume that those things are similar l have a friend who reads sports magazine is 6399 and is rich Lawyer or basketball player 0 Anchoring taking the rst thing you hear and assuming something 7x6x5x4x3x2x1 bigger number 1x2x3x4x5x6x7 smaller number Selfful lling prophecy when knowledgeexpectations change behaviors which change the person39s you are with s behavior to what you expect 0 They feed off of your behaviors o Rosenthal39s Pygmalion affect Told teachers that he has new test that tells which children are early bloomers and which children are late bloomers and at the end of the study the teacher said that the early bloomers were smarter and they got better grades than the late bloomers Person perception stereotypes how we perceive other people subconsciously o How are stereotypes valuable and useful Without them it would be impossible to make a decision about small issues like where to eat and what to watch 0 How are they misleading and potentially dangerous Can lead to making bad and irrational decisions Discrimination and Prejudice Prejudice negative attitude toward an individual based solely on his or her membership in a particular group or category often without any direct evidence 0 Rise from false stereotype so why do they exists even though there are facts that say they are wrong It is like an attack on their identity because it is what they have believed for a while Discrimination a negative action taken against an individual as a result of his or her group or categorical membership It is the behavior that prejudice generates o Explicit obvious conscious and deliberate o Implicit not obvious subconscious Causes of prejudice and discrimination Dissimilarity Social distance perceived difference of similarity between oneself and another person Economic competition a wedge because of income differences Scapegoating l blaming an innocent person or group for one s own troubles and then discriminating against or abusing them 0 Ex Wedge between groups because of a goal Conformity to social norms perhaps the most pervasive and unthinking tendency to maintain conditions the way they are Media stereotypes think of the quotdumb conservativequot or the quottree hugging liberalquot Dehumanization the psychological process of thinking about certain other people or groups as less than human as like feared or hated animals A basic process in much prejudice and mass violence same reasons Hitler had Automatic or Subconscious Processes How is this automatic thinking developed Where do these often well ingrained associations come from o Classicalconditioning Much of what we learn through classical conditioning occurs outside of our awareness o Operant conditioning Reinforcement causes people to hold true to a prejudice 0 Culture Back to Behavior Reasons for not using behavioral measures 0 Time consuming o Takes longer to observe than it does to give a survey Solution eld research 0 Unfocused interactions moments when people interact with nonverbal communication Standing in line at a grocery store sharing an elevator movie theatre Why study these Happens everyday and it happens everywhere 0 it is likely that the occurrence and quality of speci c unfocused interactions affect subsequent reactions 0 offer avenues for behavior that are not denoted by explicit attitudes or beliefs unfocused interactions are often observed in public places without the collection of personally identifiany information Generalizability See Social slides Conformity changing one39s behavior to match or conform with the behavior and actions of others Power of the group Why do people conform 0 Maybe they know better than me o I know better but no need to rock the boat Candid camera Asch experiments What would you do What increased the likelihood of someone conforming Are the social norms obvious Increases when 0 No dissent o Behaviors are highly public 0 Alternatives are not available or made to be unattractive Compliance A change in behavior due to direct request 0 Consider a time when you complied with a request even when you did not want to We received request all the time if not daily 0 Will you vote for me 0 Can you spare me some change 0 Could you help me out with this What increases compliance Attractiveness o The request is small 0 The request is logically consistent with a position or behavior we have previously made public 0 Knowledge is available that others have complied with the same or similar requests particularly if those other are similar to you Obedience Obedience compliance as a result of direct orders from an authority gure 0 Boss requires you to work overtime Hitler and Mussolini o Transformed rational citizens of entire countriesnations into mindless loyal followers of a fascist ideology bent on world conquest 0 Those likely to resist educated intellectuals and foreigners were suppressed via torture or murder quotPeople templequot quotHeaven39s Gatequot 911 Stanley Milgram39s research Groupthink 5 conditions likely to promote groupthink o Directive leadership a dominant leader 0 High group cohesiveness with absence of dissenting views Cohesiveness solidarity loyalty and sense of group membership 0 Lack of norms requiring methodical procedures for evidence collectionevaluation Homogeneity of members39 social background and ideology 0 High stress from external threats with low hope of a better solution than that of the group leader 0 Why no help Kitty Genovese Diffusion of responsibility dilution or weakening of each group member39s obligation with responsibility perceived to be share with a group members or accepted by the leader Social in uence putting pressure on someone to change their behaviorsbeliefs Paradox of Choice Maximizers vs Satisfier trying to make the best decision for every situation Analysis Paralysis spend most of your time thinking about the decision and not acting on it o Paralyzed by the number of choices Routes of information processing Automatic 0 Quick effortless intuitive and re exive Deliberate or controlled 0 Slow and effortful conscious purposeful Principles of In uence Robert Cialdini Used by compliance professionals as well as neighbors friends lovers and offspring Immersion in to the world of in uence in order t learn the techniques and strategies most commonly and effectively used 0 Answer newspaper ad for sales trainees o Penetrate advertising PR and fundraising agencies 0 Interview sales rep Among the countless different tactics to obtain compliance the majority are explained by 6 broad categories 0 Authority signal to people how important you are Eg having a receptionist for a real estate company tell the credentials of the realtors caused sales and signed contracts to 90 UP 0 Consistencycommitment people like consistency Eg one neighborhood didn t want to put up an ugly drive safely sign but in the other neighborhood who had put up a drive safely card in their window 0 Reciprocation obligation to give back to who you receive something from Giving someone a party invite when they invited you to their pa y Gift must be personalized and unexpected 0 Social validationsocial proofconsensus people look to the actions of others to determine their own Eg quot75 of our guests reuse their towelsquot increase the likelihood of people reusing their towels o Liking preference to say yes to those they like Three factors similar pay us compliments cooperate with us 0 Scarcity people want more of what is less Not just what is bene cial but what is unique and what they stand to lose Scarce information and services Employed for request such as donations purchases concessions votes etc Mindless automation Caildini investigates how each principle can produce automatic mindless compliance from people With increasing technology and bombardment of information from modern life this route of information processing may be exploited even more in the future 0 The how and why of automatic in uence Turquoise jewelry o 12 vs 2 0 Why did the jewelry sell for x2 of the price than 12 off Her customers are wealthier and think the more it costs the better Maternal turkeys are good mothers 0 Virtually all mothering is triggered by quotcheepcheepquot o M W Fox experiment with stuffed polecat wildcat pg 2 Automation mama The cat tore the stuffed cat up the rst time it came around but when it had a recording of quotcheepcheepquot then the mother took care of the cat 0 Fixedaction patterns behaviors that compose these patterns occur in virtually the same fashion in the same order every time quot click Whirrrf39 of tape player 0 Trigger feature activating the pattern or tape R pg 3 0 While less sophisticated animals can be fooled by trigger features into reacting inappropriately 2 things These automated xedaction patterns work great the vast majority of the time Humans also have these patterns and while ours works great we can be fooled by multiple incoming messages Mindlessness 0 Remember ellen langer Excuse me l have ve pages May I use the Xerox machine because I am in a rush 94 Excuse me l have ve pages May I use the Xerox machine 60 Because im in a rush was the difference 0 just because 0 New saying quotbecause I have to make some copies 93 Because was the trigger to automatic compliance 0 Click whirrrr H 0 Why so much mindlessness We need short cuts Not possible to recognize and analyze all the aspects of every object person and event you encounter Exploiting this Mindlessness Evolutionary advantages 0 Killer female re ies p8 0 Sabertoothed blenny A small sh cleans a larger where the larger one allows the cleaner to enter its mouth and pick fungus and parasites Larger sh onle spares the cleaner species eats other small animals The blenny approaches larger sh copying the cleaner39s dance producing a tranquil large sh Then rips a mouthful of esh form the large sh and darts off Click whirr Economic advantage Components of automatic in uence Mechanical process by which they are initiated Exploitability by those who know how to trigger them Ability to manipulate without the appearance of manipulate 0 Even those being in uence will tend to see their behavior and compliance as determined by natural forces instead of originating via the designs of the entity pro ting from the compliance Contrast principle in human perception Psychophysics and Charlie s Angels Clothing stores Realestate Automobiles Reciprocation The old give and takeand take 0 Professor39s holiday cards 0 Reciprocity shown in toddlers 0 5000 in relief aid sent bw Ethiopia and Mexico 1985 0 Painting study Consider the Hare Krishna soliciting donations o In robes with beads and bells they would cover a street chanting and begging for funds 0 Later they decided a different strategy may be better Note that the rule has begun to outlive its usefulness for K shnas Politics 0 Johnson divided gov39t but dues paid to opposition vs carter had majority support but came from outside establishment Test Review Patterson39s chpt 2 o Focused and unfocused interaction 0 Passing encounters Back to behavior Spatial intrusions o Compensatory behaviors More than words Persuasion 12 of the multiple choice Social in uencebehavior Conformity Bystander effect Prejudice Discrimination How attitudes are formed Cognitive dissonance Helping behaviors Social rolesnorms 0 Strong clear rulesexpectations of what39s acceptable and what is not vs weak situation what isn39t Fundamental attribution error a tendency to over emphasize dispositional characteristics eg personality Characteristics and deemphasize situational characteristics when we attribute the cause of someone39s behaviors 0 Ex mary trips while talking on the phone and walking on the sidewalk FAE mary is cumsy instead of the sidewalk is messed up anyone would have tripped
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