chapter 1-3, and chapter 11
chapter 1-3, and chapter 11 CHEM 120
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Date Created: 10/09/15
Matter chapter 1 Def has mass and occupies space Weight deals with gravity matter does not So mass refers to the amount of matter present in a sample Is not matter energy sound waves 0 Any kind of kinetic energy or movement not matter Physical properties an observedmeasured quantity without affecting the identity of a substance Shape boiling and freezing points physical states color dens y States of matter Solid 0 Definite shape and volume 0 Particles Vibrate in fixed position 0 Liquid 0 Definite volume 0 Takes the same shape of the container 0 Particles are independent of each other in the surface but limited by its volume 0 Takes the same shape and volume as their containers 0 Particles are totally independent Gas Liquid 7 Solid 39 0 39 Gaseous u d39JH 39 lsl 39sml O l39 i f f LIONT Solzd wan WMN HIT fmln39xDxLx 1quotx1 hln anIQanQ 11114 n1sz Change of state Solid ltgt gas sublimation and depositions Liquidltgtsolid meting freezing Liquidltgtgas boiling condensation Heating curve 140 120 A A A4 l 5 5 v 100 a so 60 T E 40 20 I o nII 039I KV 0 Heataddedataoonstantralc t Dens y Ratio of mass over volume 0 dmV 0 units gml the density of a collection of matter depends on its chemical composition and its phase 0 the cork and the ice are less dense than water therefore they are at the top of the water bath 0 the led and the aluminum are more dense therefore it sinks Density Lab 0 Balance calibration Use calibrated weights 0 Density of cylinder Measure mass use balance and volume calculate Dmv V of cylinder pi rA2h n Volume of outer cylinder volume of inner space 0 Density of irregularlyshaped piece of metal Measure mass balance and volume displacement of water Volume of water object volume of water 0 Density of water and coke Measure mass balance and volume volumetric pipet Mass of beaker and liquid mass of liquid 0 Temperature of water Classification of matter Element Compound Mixture Fr quot x 7 f l l Ca l 39 aquot 398 r6 2 f F F v Elements 0 Composed entirely of the same type of atom o A pure substance 0 Compound 0 Composed entirely of the same type of molecule 0 A pure substance 0 Separated by chemical means 0 Ionic compounds or molecules Molecules only classified by compound bonded by shared bonds Ionic a compounds by charged attraction Mixture o Composed of different kinds of atoms or molecules mixed together but both substances still retain their own chemical identities o Separated by physical means 0 Homogeneous unified throughout the mixture 0 Heterogeneous visible separation Pure substance o A single kind of matter that cant be separated into other kinds of matter by any physical means 0 Always has a definite and constant composition MIXTURES impure x Sepor 39 R39wt Pure substances vs Mixtures 0 Pure cant be separated into different components by physical means only by chemical means 0 Mixture can be separated by physical means Separation techniques 0 In a mixture the components hold onto their unique identities The more similar the physical properties the harder it is to separate the substance w 1 u m e Physical umtbmat mn Only one substance pint of two I39 more De nite and Want wbxunccs companion Compmutton can var Wits always the o Pmpcm cs can vary me under the some w ith compmdion cmditkm L 39 39 39 1 l 1 l 1 m Coneh m m W lam I Cannot be broken dmvn I Lin be broken dawn One vmblc phase a TM or mow v mhlc into simpler substmch Into mmtituent Same properties plumx by chemical at physical elements by chemical tubung a Different propcmcx mm but not physical means in chffcrmt phases 0 Banking blocks for all Chemical combinmon other types of matter at two or more elements I I I8 elements known Haw de nite constant elemental omnpositnon 39 10109 scum tom c 1965 Mo CCle 5 Chemical properties Describes the ability of a substance to changes into new substance or substances 0 You form a new compound or you break apart a compound 0 Combustions Contains so combo of C H O and we burn it to form C02 and H20 0 Includes resistance to forming a new compound 0 Oxidation Iron to rust Aluminum will resist oxidation Physical change vs Chemical change Physical physical properties change but the composition of the molecule does not change 0 Molecule is the limit of physical division Chemical the composition of the molecule will change they are often accompanied by the physical change 0 An atom is the limit for chemical division Representing elements and compounds 0 Example with WATER Chemical models 0 Red oxygen 0 White hydrogen Chemical symbols w 39 0 Oxygen O 0 Hydrogen H Chemical formulas O H H Compound terminology Diatomic Molecules o 2 atoms ex 02 N2 H2 or HF Triatomic Molecules o 3 atoms exH20 you can go uplike quad atomic etc Homoatomic o All the same element Ex F2 H2 Heteroatomic o More than one type of element Measurements chapter 2 0 Metric is always used in chemistryscience in general CONVERSION FACTORS WHATWECALLTHE FRACTIONS WE USE TO CONVERTFROM ONE UNIT TO ANOTHER AN EQUALITY First Quantity Second Quantity 1 m 100 cm Number l unit Number I unit Increase the size of the unit 0 Kilo k 1000 0 Mega M 1000000 0 Giga G 1000000000 o Tera T 1000000000000 o Peta P 1000000000000000 Decrease the size of the unit 0 Deci cl 1 o Centi c 01 o Milli m 001 0 Micro greek u 000 001 o Nano n 000 000 001 o Pico p 000 000 000 001 o Femto f 000 000 000 000 001 Length meters m 0 Volume liters L o Si m 3 0 Metric m o 1cc cm 3 1 ml 0 Mass grams 9 Temp Celsius C 0 Kelvin si 0 C 27315 K o 0 K absolute zero Time seconds sec 0 Percent pats per 100 o Ppm parts per 1000000 million 0 Ppb parts per 1000000000 billion An Atom chapter 3 Def the smallest piece of an element that still retains the elements properties An atom of sodium will not behave like a block of sodium But in chemistry we tend to think in bulk properties Atomic structure Size of atom o 10A1O m o 1 angskom o 1 A Electron cloud 0 The equot will be 0 A lot of energy from movement 0 Diameter size of atom Nucleus o Protons and neutron Size of atom 0 They are very spread out in an atomic view point If a nucleus was a ping pong ball in our class GUG the electrons would be at husky stadium Mai M r 2 H9 39noccu on L amp I A HT m l gowwr d two 2 t 2 I An sham g 339 l A 5 ro l v39w V W ncuh mf 8 39 f5 Protonquot 3 Neutron I D m M10 quotm 2 I k Mb MW Tht nucleus is shown 1 cm in dmneter The dsameter of the region occuper by in electrons would be 100 m 39 Ana A TABLE 35 Particles in the Atom Subatomic Particle Symbol Electrical Charge Mass amu Location in Atom Proton p or p39 l 007 Nuclcus Neutron n or n 0 1008 Nucleus Electron 0 l 0000 55 Outside nucleus amu atomic mass unit protons and neutron which is in the nucleus is where the mass of the atom is located protons o the chemical identity of the atom based on what element it is 0 ex 6 protons Carbon 8 protons Oxygen Electrons 0 gives the ionic character of the atom o is it charged No charge same number of protons and electrons n More protons positive a More electrons negative Neutrons 0 Give the isotopic character of the atom Is it stable or not Ex carbon 13 6 protons 7 neutrons a Carbon 12 6 protons 6 neutrons 0 They are there to hold the nucleus together because like charges repel each other from the protons Hence why it determines the stability of the atom Atomic structure Def 8 O 1600 Atomic number Z the number of protons 0 Ex 8 Mass number A the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus o A 8protons 8neutrons 16 Atomic Mass the average of the atomic masses of the most common isotopes o Weighted average of masses of all naturally occurring isotopes 0 Ex 1600 Atomic Theory All matter is composed of atoms 0 Atoms are the smallest body that retains the unique identity of the element even though atoms can be broken down into smaller parts Atoms of one element cannot be converted to the atoms of another element in a chemical reactions chemical reactions really deal with the electrons 0 They can only by changed in a nuclear reaction Actually changing the number of protons of an atom All atoms of an element have the same number of protons and electrons which will then determine the chemical behavior 0 Isotopes of an element differ in the number of neutrons Meaning its mass nuber but not really in its chemical behavior 0 Compounds are formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in specific ratio Atom Weight The Mass and Charge of the Electron Proton and Neutron Particle M ass I h a rgc 39 Electron 91 X 10 339 kg 1 Proton L67 X l 393 kg l Neutron L67 X 10 3 kg None quotI39hc magnitude of the charge of thc clcctron and the proton is 160 X l W i 0 atomic mass calculating Atomic Mass 0 EX 0 Carbon 12 6p 6n 6e 6p mass of protons 0 sample of 1000 carbon atoms 989 12amu 11 13amu1000 C atoms n 12011amu atomic mass of C o if there are different weighted averages of isotopes for one element you have to add them together 0 is the average atomic masses of all the element s isotopes 0 because from the mass spectrometer it will tell you the percentage of each isotopes likeliness 0 percentage amu of isotope etc lSOIOpES OT lVlagHESlum cacwcq39ra 41mm incHS OF Ma I I mm 23 m 33231 x J 7 0f I 01012 24 l l am 39l 4 0 ll I7 2999M w r f I l39 345lamu Atomic mass unit 0 Defined as 112th the mass of a carbon 12 atom Other masses are relative to this standard 0 Ex carbon12 weighs 12amu but carbon 13 weighs 13003355amu Atomic masses on the periodic table are weighted averages and related to the atomic mass unit Isotopes Atom of the same element that differ in mass 0 Isotopes are the same elements 0 They have the same number of protons and different number of neutrons Differ in mass 0 Many isotopes occur in nature Measured with a mass spectrometer o The most abundant isotope is with mass number 20 Inn hmm inlcmil ul dclcclor l lX lCtlnl Ndh I Il HIJI I39 Rh xu lcmu um l39un 39 1 39 39 Jmplc l W H i a i l 5 J 24 calm dun c 39u upurm umpic 1 Hum held 30 3 sim Mum number 7 W 1 Humn hum Periodic law row period column group elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic in periods a repeating pattern of reactivity is the group set up 0 further down you go the more reactive it is atomic number top atomic mass on bottom average of all isotopes the period number describes the outermost electron cloud energy level groups have similar electron configuration need to know elements 0 pg 16 table 11 know the red ones number metals 0 solid at room temp form positive ions don t form covalent bonds some exceptions with hemoglobin and iron non metals 0 form negative ions metalloids lanthoids anthoids 2A Manned T 7 quot4399quot id 53quotquot periodic groups 0 1A alkaline metals 0 2A alkalin earth metals 0 8A noble gases not very reactive 0 7A halogens 0 transition elements Alum Noble metals gars IA Alkaline Halogen 1 8A earth H 2A m 3A 4A SA 6A 7A 447 quot quot lanthnnidcs Id 1 ijm c l WJJ diatomic molecules 0 hydrogen nitrogen oxygen fluorine chlorine bromine iodine o HOFBrINCl Nuclear Reaction chapter 111113 Def change occurs within the nucleus Nuclide an atom with a specific atomic number and specific mass number kind of like an isotope o How its different isotope is with one particular element 0 While with a nuclide we are thinking of different elements 0 Stable nuclide does not readily undergo a nuclear change 0 Unstable nuclide will undergo a nuclear change 0 Radioactive nuclide a nuclide with an unstable nucleus from which a radiation is spontaneously emitted Radioactive stability 0 Correlation between nuclear stability and the total number of nucleons found in a nucleus 0 Nuclei with 84 or more protons are unstable Too unbalanced in the nucleus charge wise Blue unstable Red stable I39M quotIlllll 530 m I gm Illlll 14W gnu 0 U I Ill mamum Number of Stable Nuclldes Related to Numbers of Protons and Neutrons 0 20 Number of Number of Number of Protons Neutrons Stable Nuclides Examples Even Even 168 39 C 3930 Even Odd 57 13c gTi Odd Even 50 399 3N3 Odd Odd 4 in gLi Note Even numbers of protons and neutrons seem to favor stability Types of radiation Alpha particles 0 2 protons and 2 neutrons a helium nucleus 0 has mass OK 4He know 1 VLOCICVg Beta particle 0 Charge and mass are identical to that of an electron 0 Has mass 0 o 426 are Gamma ray 0 Just energy No mass of charge 0 In radioactive decay Gamma rays are only emitted with the presence of alpha or beta particles 0 X 0 0 We can produce other types of radiation by hitting atoms with energy 0 Ex electron capture An electron is leaving the cloud and going into the nucleus We are converting a protons into a neutron creating something that is more stable I We create a neutral charge because 1 and 1 0 This is how we produce synthetic elements and the bottom of the periodic table Radioactive decay Process whereby a radionuclide is transformed into a nuclide of another element as a result of the emission of radiation from the nucleus 0 Parent nuclide nuclide that undergoes the change 0 Daughter nuclide the nuclide that is produced 0 Parent becomes daughter by adding an electron to the equation electron capture Alpha particle decay 0 We know that the atomic and mass number must be the same on both sides of the equation 0 For the equations you just need to remember to balance the equations so they are equal on both sides Figure out the substance just look at the periodic table and the mass number to locate it 0 Beta particle decay 0 Mass number of parent mass number of daughter 0 Increasing the number of protons and decreasing the number of neutrons Gamma ray emission 0 Energy is added doesn t affect the balancing 0 You have to be told there is gamma ray emissions Difference between a nuclear and chemical equation The symbol in the nuclear equation stands for the nuclei rather than atoms 0 0 Chemical equations you focus on the electrons as well 0 Mass numbers and atomic numbers are always specifically included in nuclear equations 0 The elemental symbol on both sides of the equations frequently are not the same in the nuclear equations
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