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Week of Oct. 5th: Fossil Fuels/ Climate Change

by: Brittany Notetaker

Week of Oct. 5th: Fossil Fuels/ Climate Change EVR 1001

Marketplace > Florida State University > Environmental Science > EVR 1001 > Week of Oct 5th Fossil Fuels Climate Change
Brittany Notetaker
Introduction to Environmental Science
Dr. Rob Spencer

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Attached are the notes for the week of October 5th- October 9th. My notes are detailed, organized and easy to understand- important vocabulary is boldened and underlined and topics are listed in or...
Introduction to Environmental Science
Dr. Rob Spencer
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EVR 1001 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Rob Spencer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Environmental Science in Environmental Science at Florida State University.

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Date Created: 10/09/15
October 6th 2015 Fossil Fuels Climate Changg Fossil fuels are forms of stored solar energy 0 plants covert solar energy to chemical energy through photosynthesis 0 oil natural gas and coal 0 formed from incomplete decomposition of organic matter converted by chemical reactions 0 crude oil and natural gas are derived from organic matter that were buried with marine or lake sediments in depositional basins 0 Primarily found along plate boundaries 0 exceptions here include Texas Gulf of Mexico North Dakota and North Sea Conventional and continuous oil and gas resources 0 resources are the total amount of oil and gas present in the rocks 0 conventional resources are located in discrete oil elds trapped geologically 0 Reserves are that portion of the resource that is identified and is currently available to be legally extracted at profit 0 Continuous resources are regional in extent occurring in broad geological basins Source Rocks 0 fine grained organic rich sediments 0 At least 500m depth 0 subjected to increased heat and pressure initiates the chemical transformations Reservoir rock 0 coarser grained and relatively porous sandstone limestone Cap rock 0 trap often shale 0 blocks natural upward migration of the oil and gas 0 often forms in anticlines or faults Tar sands 0 Sedimentary rocks or sands impregnated with tar oil asphalt or bitumen 0 Recovered by mining sands and washing the oil out with hot water 0 Found in Alberta Canada strip mined 0 Waste disposal similar problem as with shale but greater volume of east produced 0 Inherently dirty process 0 Transportation via pipeline Kalamazoo River Spill in 2010 Fine grained sedimentary rock containing organic matter 0 when heated to 500 degrees Celsius oil shale yields oil 0 destructive distillation 0 oil from shale is also called synfuel synthetic fuel 0 liquid gaseous fuel derived from solid fossil fuel Recovery performed on notch surface and subsurface Disposal of waste is a problem because shale is just being restored crushed and heated 0 volume of waste 20 30 greater than original volume 0 waste contains several pollutants that are toxic Oil shale mining may develop as oil prices change rise of fracking Primary production 0 involves pumping oil from wells 0 recovers only 25 of petroleum in a reservoir Enhanced recovery 0 increases the amount recovered to 60 0 team water or chemical injected into the reservoir to push the oil toward the wells Proven oil reserves 0 portion of total resources that has been identified and can be extracted at a profit 0 Majority in the middle east Proven oil reserve estimates 0 oil and natural gas will last only a few decades 0 Earth has nearly 1688 trillion barrels of crude 533 years at current rates of extraction 0 during the last 10 years proven reserve have risen by 27 When will we reach peak production 0 likely between 2020 2050 Headed towards a potential crisis we are approaching the time when 50 of the total crude oil available from traditional oil elds will have been consumed proven reserves quickly using this up For every three barrels of oil consumed one is found Before shortages occur need appropriate action to avoid military confrontation food shortages social disruption Need to develop alternative energy supplies solar energy wind power nuclear power Only recently begun to utilize this resource pipelines technology is much better today Recoverabe gas worldwide estimates 100 years new supplies are being found Considered a relatively clean fuel produces fewer pollutants than burning oil or coal could be a transition fuel Natural gas Within tiny openings of shale rock shale has a lot of open space between grains uids are tightly held Potential for resource to supply all US demand for natural gas for a few decades Use of hydraulic fracturing fracking water pollution impacts on water supply Recovery re ning and use of oil and natural has caused environmental problems air and water pollution acid rain climate change health impacts Recovery environmental impacts of recovery on land use of land to construct pads for wells pipelines and storage tanks to build a network of roads pollution of surface waters and groundwater Recovery accidental release of air pollutants hydrocarbons hydrogen sul de Lands subsidence as oil and gas are Withdra wn Loss or disruption of and damage to fragile ecosystems such as wetands boreal forest Recovery environmental impacts of recovery on the ocean oil seepage into the ocean release of drilling muds containing heavy metals aesthetic degradation from the presence of offshore oil drilling platforms Re ning environmental impacts of re ning crude oils Delivery and use Fansportation of crude oil on land by pipelines across the ocean in tankers Partialy decomposed vegetation slowly transformed in solid brittle carbonaceous rock Most abundant fossil fuel In US 10005 of square miles disturbed by coal mining only about half reclaimed Reclamation process of restoring and improving disturbed land often by reforming the surface Strip mining surface process overlying layers of soil and rock are stripped off to reach the coal gt 12 of the coal Acid mine drainage occurs when surface water in ltrates oil banks water reacts with sul de minerals to produce sulfuric acid acid pollutes streams and groundwater In arid and semi arid regions the land is more sensitive to mining activities exploration and road building soil is this and water is sacred making reclamation more dif cult Reclamation can minimize damage laws very by site country Mountain top removal Appalachian mountains of West Virginia strip mining levels tops of mountains and lls valleys with mining waste ood hazard increases coal waste sludge dams formed by mine waster toxic waste water is contaminated Surface mining control and reclamation act of 1977 US gov required that mined land is restored to support premining use Prohibit mining of prime agricultural land 39 reclamation includes disposing of waste Underground mining accounts for 40 of coal mined in the us En vironmenta probems acid mine drainage and waste piles pollute streams land subsidence can occur over miles coal re in underground mine 7739ansporting coal 39 energy costs associated with moving it carbon footprint 39 freight trains barges 39 slurry pipelines Overall the mining and use of about 900 Thursday October 9th 2015 Weather meteorological conditions in a given place on a given day Climate longterm averages patterns or trends in the weather Note that included in climate is the expected frequency of extreme events Weather can be produced by meteorologists for about 2 weeks into the future Longer term predictions of weather for a region are made by reference to that regions climate Climate change is not a change in daytoday weather It cannot be determined by comparing the weather on one particular day to another or even year to year It is a long term change Because of natural weather variability the range of weather in a regions climate it takes decades to access climate change Regional Climate change changing patterns of average weather for a particular region is saharan desert getting drier is Tallahassee getting warmer Local climate change is the planet as a whole getting warmer wetter windier etc The dame pressures can drive global climate change and regional climate change What is indisputable the Earth s climate will change naturally it always has in the past carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are rising incredibly rapidly and have already exceeded the found at any point in earths recent past if everything else remains the same increased carbon dioxide levels will cause increased average temps on earth global average temperatures have increased during the past century and have risen particularly during the past half century What is still being debated is this temperature increase due to human activities how much of this warming is due to human activities what will the climate do in the future How do we know anything about how the Climate has varied in the past direct instrumental record past 140 years historical record millennia Paleoclimate record Anomaly deviation from a standard Additional Climate observations increased precipitation rising sealevels decrease in number of days with frost glacier retreat decreased snow cover shifting habitats of many plants and animals Indirect methods of estimating climate tree rings are thicker when conditions are better for growing ice cores snow and ice are deposited in glaciers each year these layers get compacted and built up on top of the other each layer traps water gases and particles that are representative of the time when it was formed Indirect methods of estimating Climate Marine sediments tiny marine organisms get preserved in layers of marine sediments chemical makeup of shells re ect water chemistry stable isotopes re ect temperature There are many different species of foraminifera some live on surface ocean some live on bottom but that isn t the only estimate of temperature that scientists can get from foraminifera Milanlt0 vitch Cycles related to orbital changes these orbital changes have regular priorities and affect the overall amount of heat reaching the earth and weather that heat arrives during NH summer or winter


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