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Date Created: 11/05/14
CHSTU 200 October 22 2014 The Bracero Program produced inverse results stimulated and increased immigration Program for Jamaican workers brought to Idaho their racism conditions were extremely bad The Puerto Rican and Cuban American Community Through 1970 Migration and immigration linked to labor demand Puerto Rico Framing US Colonialism in Puerto Rico and Cuba Puerto Rico 0 Cuba Political Background Foraker Act and insular cases disenfranchise the islands it is not subject to rights until Jones Act 1917 1952 Commonwealth Status cultural autonomy without independence or statehood Economy Capital investment Downes v Bidwell 1901 gave outside investors not subject to revenue clauses free reign over island economy Modernizes island export farm economy with exploited workforce WWII Operation Bootstrap industrialization leads to brief post war prosperity Island economy remains underdeveloped and centered on exports Migration Island39s semi coIonia status and its growing unemployment triggered substantial labor outmigration Puerto Ricans become globetrotters to mainland Caribbean Mexico Latin America and the Hawaiian Islands Internal rura urban migration and the pressure to leave as circular migrants during WWI as contract laborers on East Coast military bases munitions factories Louisiana sugar plantations and Arizona cotton farms Significant numbers settled in urban areas Brooklyn New York later in Logan Heights Chicago Political Background Platt Amendment created the island as a protectorate of the US US found it necessary to subordinate national political process to fit US economic and political interests by installing successive puppet dictators Consequently repeated use of force when necessary to quell popular discontent 1934 1952 Fulgencio Batista installed as dictator until the 1959 Cuban Revolution and the age of Fidel Castro 0 Economy Extraordinary economic agricultural potential of the island Economy open to US investment by absentee and elite owned plantation system of sugar and tobacco production Discontented and rebellious working class 0 Migration Pre and post Spanish war immigration 190039s on consider proximity of Cuba to Florida and socioeconomic and political links with the US so that the island is part of our back yard Skilled tobacco workers men and women worked long hours for extremely low pay in Tampa and New York City Skilled immigrants American Federation of Labor tried to organize Economic Crisis led to the introduction of automatic cigar rolling machines Emigration back to Cuba and Puerto Rico WWII Cuba and Puerto Rico Winning the war as PanAmerican effortcooperation Strategic demand for food sugar and tobacco production from the two island economies Operation Bootstrap to industrialize farm production Out migration from Puerto Rico under a separate Contract bracero type Labor Program farm laborers and railroad workers to fill labor shortages in the eastern regions of the mainland Subject to military service as citizens Cuba some immigration but tipping point comes with the Castro revolution of 1959 Mexican 19411965 Second Generation Braceros Legal Undocumented Dispersed but majority in Western States 5 million braceros alone Puerto Rico 19411964 Great migration 1 million by 1960 s Braceros Diffusion Increased Circular Migration Cuba 19521959 BatistaCastro 19591962 Golden Exiles Fleeing Castro and Welcomed as Refugees First generation of exiles Freedom Flights Dispersal but centralized to 19631973 Florida Movie World War 2 affected Mexicans Puerto Ricans and Cubans Jose Martin father of Cuban independence arrives to New York he was influenced by the Americans idea of freedom and rights He begins to realize that the US is not a strong example for Cuba he is no longer an observer and he becomes a political actor Martin published Patria where he talked about what US intentions to buy Cuba from Spain
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