MU 2313 Ch 11
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2313 at Texas State University taught by Thomas Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Fine Arts in Music at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 10/09/15
MU 2313 Ch 11 The Renaissance and Reformation in Northern Europe I The Reformation a Split within the Christian Church which was previously dominated by the Roman Catholic Church b Religious divisions of Europe Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Anglican Eastern Orthodox Islamic c Three primary reformers i Martin Luther ii Ulrich Zwingli iii John Calvin d Primary issues i Indulgences 1 Church was selling slips of paper to absolve sin basically buying forgiveness ii Biblical ritual and practice 1 Indulgences and many other things the church is doing isn t in the Bible iii Relationship of body and soul iv Grace 1 Forgiveness of sins attained with the death of Christ 2 Reenactment in mass isn t necessary v Predestination vi Transubstantiation II Martin Luther 14831546 a German middleclass fascinated with theology b Ninetyfive theses i Indulgences violated church s purpose ii Arguments against the current practices of the church iii He targets his local church to avoid the Inquisition iv Becomes a folk hero of the German people who agree with many of his points c An Appeal to the German Nation i Things not discussed in the bible 1 No need to pay papal taxes 2 Spiritually empty pilgrimages 3 Clerical celibacy ii Charles V the Holy Roman Emperor condemns Luther and calls him before the Inquisition 1 Luther s well known words when he arrives quotHere I stand I cannot do otherwise 2 After Inquisition Luther is rescued and taken away III Ulrich Zwingli 14841531 a Swiss b Condemned nonbiblical practices i Transubstantiation 1 The belief that the bread and wine of communion is literally transformed into the blood and flesh of Christ ii Pilgrimages iii Fasts iv Papal supremacy 1 The Pope was believed to be more divine than others 2 Zwingli argues that the Pope is just as human as everyone else 3 Society of theocracy church and state connected state run by religious leaders church attendance was required by law VI VII c Taken prisoner and executed for his beliefs i Fight between Protestant rebels and Christians John Calvin a Most radical of the three reformers b French Geneva c Institutes of the Christian Religion i Predestination 1 People are born with a destiny towards heaven or hell ii Salvation by faith alone 1 Not by doing good works d Calvinist theocracy i Puritanism ii Zealots iii Pope viewed as the antiChrist e Inspired others i Dutch reform in Netherlands ii Mennonites Quakers Science a Improved cartography map making i Expansion of the European world b On the Fabric of the Human Body Vesalius i Anatomy text ii Shows the structures of the body and how they work iii Vesalius studied corpses and drew illustrations c On the Revolutions of the Celestial Orbs Copernicus i Astronomy text ii Presented a heliocentric model the sun is the center of the universe iii Went against the church view that the earth was the center Concepts a Christian Humanism i Fundamental goodness of mankind ii Erasmus 1 Translate the Bible into the common language a People can read the text themselves and create their own views 2 Fund public education to enhance society 3 Avoid war b Utopianism i Coined by Thomas Moore Utopia 1516 ii Communal ownership egalitarianism immutable set ofjust amp rational laws Art a Jan van Eyck The Arnolfini Marriage 1434 i Creates 3D depth ii At first glance the woman appears pregnant but she is just holding up a bustle of her dress 1 mpies pregnancy and the possibility that she might bear children soon will be pregnant iii Single candle in the chandelier symbolic of the unity between man and wife iv Dog symbol of loyalty v St Margaret on the bedpost patron saint of childbirth vi Mirror between the bride and groom shows a reflection of the couple and the painter b Rogier van der Weyden The Descent from the Cross c 1435 i Removing Christ s body from the cross ii Emotional a woman has passed out iii Realistic flesh tones and shading c Hieronymus Bosch The Garden of Earthly Delights c 1505 i Left panel creation of Adam and Eve animals in the garden ii Center the world before the flood everyone is naked no explicit sex but implies it iii Right hell human heart set of ears with a knife between them many strange things d Pieter Bruegel the Elder Landscape with the Fall of Icaurus c 15545 i Scene doesn t really relate to the title ii No one notices Icaurus fall message that life goes on iii Background isn t straight 1 Tries to curve it to show the newfound knowledge that the earth is round e Albrecht Durer Selfportrait 1498 i Leonardo of the Northern Renaissance ii Treatise on proportion and ratio iii Virtuosic engravings 1 The new invention of the printing press can make hundreds of copies 2 Creates a wider audience for paintings 3 People can get a print of his engravings iv Important transitional figure 1 Brings the influence of the Italian Renaissance to Europe v The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse c 14978 1 Example of an engraving 2 Horsemen are trampling mankind 3 Scene from the Book of Revelations 4 Crowded image Romanesque influence 5 Foreshortening characteristic of Italian Renaissance vi Four Apostles 1526 1 Died before the central panel was complete would ve shown the Madonna and child 2 Influence of Italian Renaissance in the drape of clothes the detailed technique of shade and light to give texture f Matthias Grunewald Crucifixion c 151315 i Symbolism the lamb is holding a cross in the crook of it s leg Christ is the sacrificial lamb to atone for sins ii John the Baptist is holding an open text saying quotHe must increase I must decrease iii Christ s fingers and arms are contorted gruesome iv The crown of thorns is misshapen 1 Presents the idea that people who are suffering will go to pray see that Christ went through pain and can identify with their plight g Albrecht Altdorfer Battle of Alexander and Darius on the Issus 1559 i Greek and Persian armies ii Soldiers dressed in modern armor iii Painting is only 5 feet high yet there is a large amount of detail in the frame many soldiers iv Eye drifts to the landscape in the background the battle is almost secondary h Jean Clouet Francis I c 152530 i Francis I is the King of France ii Formal pose head and body not proportioned iii French example of mannerist painting iv Francis wanted to bring Italian Renaissance painters to France to cement his legacy in art v He mostly attracted Mannerists who didn t really have a place in Italy which was dominated by Da Vinci and Michelangelo vi Garish outfit clashes with background i Hans Holbein the Younger Henry VIII in Wedding Dress 1540 i German painter that was hired to work in London ii Christian Humanism iii Henry was unable to have a son with his first wife asked the Pope for an annulment Pope refused so Henry establishes his own church Anglican j Wollaton Hall Nottingham England 1588 i Completed by Robert Smithson ii Italian influence large windows iii No GreekRoman influence no Greek columns or archways VIII Literature and Music a William Shakespeare i 15641616 ii England s greatest playwright iii Wrote for specific company of actors for a long time 1 Constant demand for new works to be performed needed someone to write it caused a need to be prolific iv Three genres 1 Comedies a Taming of the Shrew Much Ado About Nothing 2 Tragedies a King Lear Julius Caesar 3 Histories a Richard II Henry V b Take historical events or people and present them in a dramatic setting v Patrons ranged from peasants the working class to the King and Queen b Guillaume Dufay i France and Belgium have the greatest musicians of the time ii 140074 iii Polyphonic with clarity 1 Several melodies but you can make out the lyrics iv Adopted practice of using secular songs for cantus firmus v Notable compositions 1 quotNuper Rosarum Flores a Motet written for the consecration of the Florence Cathedral 2 Se la face ay Pale Mass 3 L homme Arme Mass c Josquin des Prez i 14401521 ii Printing press wide distribution iii Compared to Michelangelo iv Emphasized imitation in polyphony Massesmotetssacred works v Roughly 70 secular songs which used homophony vi Regret over the death of Johannes Ockeghem 1 Famous work 2 Predecessor to Josquin 3 Homophonic texture d Music of the Renaissance i Germany 1 Chorale a A hymn tune 2 Martin Luther a quotA Mighty Fortress Is Our God b Shift singing to the congregation no polyphony i Untrained singers they can t read music so use simple tunes they might know 3 Johann Walter a Polyphonic choral settings 4 Heinrich Isaac a quotInnsbruck I Must Leave Thee gt quot0 World Now Must Leave Thee i Was a pub song he changed the lyrics and kept the melody ii Back adopted for St Matthew Passion ii England 1 Center for music printing composers were well distributed 2 Sacred music dramatic changes in monarchy dramatic changes in music 3 Under Elizabeth I a William Byrd revamped sacred music 4 Secular music a Thomas Morley and Thomas Weelkes i Balletdancelike song for multiple voices ii Word painting iii Nonsense syllables quotfalalalalah
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