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by: Heer Patel

Consciousness Psych 100

Heer Patel
GPA 4.0
Introduction to Psychology
John Bickford

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About this Document

This includes notes about Consciousness and sleep and dream functions. It also gets into the idea of (classical) conditioning, attentional failures, and learning but check out my next set of notes ...
Introduction to Psychology
John Bickford
Class Notes
#Psych #Psychology #Consciousness #Sleep #Dream #Conditioning
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heer Patel on Friday October 9, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 100 at University of Massachusetts taught by John Bickford in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Massachusetts.

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Date Created: 10/09/15
Consciousness Consciousness Consciousness A person39s momentary awareness of experiencing sensations thoughts and feelings Analogous to watching a theatre production Altered States of consciousness Sleep States that differ from normal working consciousness True Or False People learn to function well on just a few hours of sleep each night False You can39t LOL The Brain rests during sleep False Conscience rests but brain doesn39t People can die from extended sleep deprivation no Read belowthe notes Dreams mostly occur during deep sleep False Happens during a shallow period quotREMquot Sleepwalking occurs when a person acts out a dream False If they were reacting to a dream their actions and behaviour would be much more random and chaotic Biological Need Dep vann Reduces functioning Impaired attention awareness Impaired concentration problem solving Irritability and discomfort Trembling hands drooping eyelids staring pain sensitivity Hallucinations Microsleeps Becomes amost unbearable after about three days Record is 11 days No longterm effects Normal Range is 511 hours median is 8 hours Sleep de cits produce similar problems a deprivation May be cumulative Sleep is not a period of brain dormancy Electroencephalogram EEG Electrical activity in the brain quotbrainwavesquot Four Distinct seep stages Complete cyce lasts about 90 minutes Awake Beta Stage 1 Alpha waves kcomplex hypnic jerk Transition between sleep and wakefulness Rapid low voltage waves Possible vivid imagery Hypnic jerks Stage 2 Theta waves Slower and more regular wave patterns Sleep spindles Less easily aroused Stage 3 Delta waves Slower wave patterns with higher peaks Stage 4 Delta waves Even slower and regular Least responsive to environmental stimuli Most dif cult to arouse Occurs during earlier cycles Somnambulism REM Sleep About 90 minutes total per night Increases with exertion or stress Shallow stage but dif cult to arouse REM Rapid Eye Movement As if watching an event Skeletal muscle paralysis Period of dreaming Deprivation of REM sleep produces REM rebound Chronic REM deprivation produced symptoms similar to sleep deprivation Dream Function Four Main theories Freudian wish ful llment Dreams represent unconscious wishes that the dreamer wants to ful ll Manifest content the story line of the dream Latent content the unconscious wish it represents Dreams contain universal symbols Criticisms Dreams for survival Dreams represent that reprocessing of important information from daily life Possibly an artifact from a time when people had limited brain power Dreams are inherently meaningful Criticisms Reverse learning theory Dreams have no meaning at all Mental housekeeping Flushing awake unnecessary information accumulated throughout the day Unlearning of material that serves no purpose and could end up being confused Searching for meaning in the dream content is therefore pointless Criticisms Activation Synthesis Brain produces random electrical energy during sleep Electrical energy randomly stimulates mental content The brain excels at making meaning out of ambiguous or fragmentary stimuli Present or recent fears emotions concerns or experiences may guide the brain39s interpretation What starts out as random ends in something meaningful Echoes of Freud Attention Attention A state of focused awareness on a subset of the available perceptual information quotFocused consciousnessquot Much of the available perceptual information in the environment never enters your awareness Selective Attention Choosing the stimuli in the environment that will enter awareness Goaldirected selection Purposeful attention Stimulusdriven capture Stimulus captures attention Unusual features brightness size colour loudness RepeUUon Noveky Change Attentional Failures lnattentional blindness Failing to see an obvious visual stimulus when your attention is narrowly focused Change blindness Failing to notice changes in the visual eld Distractions multiple simultaneous changes gradual changes Internal representation of the visual world is not as precise as you might think Learning Relatively permanent change in behaviour brought about by experience One of the most basic topics of psychology In a sense almost everything we do is in uenced by what we have learned Basic Vocabulary Stimulus Physical aspect of the environment that is capable of exciting an organism39s sense organs Visual Stimuli Auditory Stimuli Tactile Stimuli Response Overt act or movement SR connectionism In its simplest form learning consists of the connection of certain responses to the perception of certain stimuli Conditioning Classical Conditioning lvan Pavlov Procedure Unconditioned stimulus gt unconditioned response Neutral stimulus Conditioned stimulus gt conditioned response Basic Process Stimulus substitution Before Conditioning Neutral Stimulus Sound of bell gt Response unrelated to meal powder pricking of ears Unconditioned Stimulus Meat powder gt Unconditioned response salivation After Conditioning Conditioned stimulus Sound of bell gt Unconditioned response Salivation Principles of Conditioning Watson amp Rayner 1920 Little Albert Afraid of white lab rat Conditioned to have phobia Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination ExUncUon Spontaneous recovery Higher order conditioning Mary CoverJones 1924 Little Peter afraid of whiterabbits Already had the phobia Systematic desensitization Counterconditioning Examples of learning by classical conditioning Happy feelings produced by holiday music Fears of hospitals dentist Many other fears Liking for familiar brand of products Golden arches Food aversions


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